Lecturer, Alexandria University
My research mainly focuses on the combination of nanoparticles and stem cells to enhance it's proliferative and differentiative potential. Stem cells from different sources are known to be variable in the differentiation capacity as we have shown earlier that stem cells derived from bone marrow had higher potential to differentiate into osteoblast (bone cells) than adipose-derived stem cells. Regarding the availability and easiness to obtain stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells are considered the most available source for the stem cells. So the involvement of nanomaterial was proposed to enhance their capacity to differentiate. Bone regeneration using this combination is our target and so we tested this combination at both in vitro and in vivo level to prove its efficacy.
Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be conveniently sampled from bone marrow, peripheral blood, muscle, adipose and connective tissue, harvested from various species, including, rodents, dogs, cats, horses, sheep, goats and human beings. The MSCs isolated from adult tissues vary in their morphological and functional properties. These variations are further complicated when cells are expanded by passaging in culture. These differences and changes in MSCs must be considered prior to their application in the clinic or in a basic research study. Goats are commonly used as animal models for bone tissue engineering to test the potential of stem cells for bone regeneration. As a result, goat MSCs isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue should be evaluated using in vitro assays, prior to their application in a tissue engineering project.In this study, we compared the stem cell properties of MSCs isolated from goat bone marrow and adipose tissue. We used quantitative and qualitative assays with a focus on osteogenesis, including, colony forming unit, rate of cell proliferation, tri-lineage differentiation and expression profiling of key signal transduction proteins to compare MSCs from low and high passages. Primary cultures generated from each source displayed the stem cell characteristics, with variations in their osteogenic potentials. Most importantly, low passaged bone marrow MSCs displayed a significantly higher and superior osteogenic potential, and hence, will be the preferred choice for bone tissue engineering in future in vivo experiments. In the bone marrow MSCs, this process is potentially mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway. On the other hand, osteogenic differentiation in the adipose tissue MSCs may involve the p44/42 MAPK pathway.Based on these data, we can conclude that bone marrow and fat-derived MSCs undergo osteogenesis via two distinct signaling pathways. Even though the bone marrow MSCs are the preferred source for bone tissue engineering, the adipose tissue MSCs are an attractive alternative source and undergo osteo-differentiation differently from the bone marrow MSCs and hence, might require a cell-based enhancer/inducer to improve their osteogenic regenerative capacity.
Pub.: 05 Mar '16, Pinned: 28 Dec '17
Abstract: The potential of graphene-based nanoparticles (GNPs) has recently gained significant attention in biomedicine, especially in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the osteoinductive and osteoconductive effects of low oxygen content graphene (LOG) nanoparticles on adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in vivo. We showed that adult goat MSCs were viable in the presence of 0.1 mg/mL LOG and retained their stem cell properties. A 3D scaffold made from agarose was used to encapsulate MSCs and LOG nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the cell morphology and adherence of MSCs to LOG in the 3D form. The LOG and MSCs in the 3D scaffold were xenogenically implanted into a rat unicortical tibial bone defect. The combination of MSCs and LOG nanoparticles resulted in improved active bone formation and increased mineralization. These results strengthen the applicability of LOG nanoparticles as an adjunct treatment for bone tissue engineering.
Pub.: 06 Jun '17, Pinned: 28 Dec '17
Abstract: Current treatments for bone loss injuries involve autologous and allogenic bone grafts, metal alloys and ceramics. Although these therapies have proved useful, they suffer from inherent challenges, and hence, an adequate bone replacement therapy has not yet been found. We hypothesize that graphene may be a useful nanoscaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and will promote proliferation and differentiation into bone progenitor cells. In this study, we evaluate graphene, a biocompatible inert nanomaterial, for its effect on in vitro growth and differentiation of goat adult mesenchymal stem cells. Cell proliferation and differentiation are compared between polystyrene-coated tissue culture plates and graphene-coated plates. Graphitic materials are cytocompatible and support cell adhesion and proliferation. Importantly, cells seeded on to oxidized graphene films undergo osteogenic differentiation in fetal bovine serum-containing medium without the addition of any glucocorticoid or specific growth factors. These findings support graphene's potential to act as an osteoinducer and a vehicle to deliver mesenchymal stem cells, and suggest that the combination of graphene and goat mesenchymal stem cells provides a promising construct for bone tissue engineering.
Pub.: 16 Sep '14, Pinned: 28 Dec '17