Doctor of Science student, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Comparing different campaign vs. routine delivery strategies for HPV vaccination
Data to inform evidence-based policy of new and existing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are limited. The proposed work aims to use a mathematical modeling framework to integrate data on population demographics, disease burden, and intervention costs and effects to estimate the budgetary impact and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination and delivery approaches in low- and middle-income countries.
HPV vaccination is targeted primarily to adolescents, who are not routinely included in national vaccination programs in LMICs. As a result, the introduction of HPV vaccination in LMICs has prompted the consideration of vaccine delivery services through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. However, reaching a target group with limited routine health services may not be best achieved by a routine immunization strategy. A campaign strategy differs from routine vaccination in that the scheduling is instead determined by disease burden and/or programmatic coverage needs. In LMICs, campaigns or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are typically used to achieve specific goals, such as measles elimination or polio eradication. SIAs are mass vaccination campaigns during which health workers and volunteers establish additional outreach service points (for measles vaccination) or go door to door (for polio vaccination) to offer immunizations to all members of a target population, irrespective of previous vaccination status. This analysis seeks to compare different delivery strategies for HPV vaccination; specifically, we plan to examine a strategy of a campaign targeting multiple-year age cohorts to a strategy of a routine program targeting single-year age cohorts.
We will identify an intervention period of interest (e.g., 2017-2037) and will measure total costs, cases, and deaths averted over the lifetime of women who receive an intervention. Outcomes of this analysis will include cervical cancers prevented (i.e., cases and deaths averted, reductions in lifetime risk) and cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted.
Abstract: To estimate the health impact, financial costs, and cost-effectiveness of scaling-up coverage of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination (young girls) and cervical cancer screening (women of screening age) for women in countries that will likely need donor assistance.We used a model-based approach to synthesize population, demographic, and epidemiological data from 50 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Models were used to project the costs (US $), lifetime health impact (cervical cancer cases, deaths averted), and cost-effectiveness (US $ per disability adjusted life year [DALY] averted) of: (1) two-dose HPV-16/18 vaccination of girls aged 10 years; (2) once-in-a-lifetime screening, with treatment when needed, of women aged 35 years with either HPV DNA testing or visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA); and (3) cervical cancer treatment over a 10-year roll-out.We estimated that both HPV vaccination and screening would be very cost-effective, and a comprehensive program could avert 5.2 million cases, 3.7 million deaths, and 22.0 million DALYs over the lifetimes of the intervention cohorts for a total 10-year program cost of US $3.2 billion.Investment in HPV vaccination of young girls and cervical cancer screen-and-treat programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries could avert a substantial burden of disease while providing good value for public health dollars.
Pub.: 12 Jul '17, Pinned: 18 Sep '17
Abstract: To achieve globally or regionally defined accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication (ADC/E/E) goals against vaccine-preventable diseases requires complementing national routine immunization programs with intensive, time-limited, and targeted Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs). Many global and country-level SIA costing efforts have historically relied on what are now outdated benchmark figures. Mobilizing adequate resources for successful implementation of SIAs requires updated estimates of non-vaccine costs per target population.This assessment updates the evidence base on the SIA operational costs through a review of literature between 1992 and 2012, and an analysis of actual expenditures from 142 SIAs conducted between 2004 and 2011 and documented in country immunization plans. These are complemented with an analysis of budgets from 31 SIAs conducted between 2006 and 2011 in order to assess the proportion of total SIA costs per person associated with various cost components. All results are presented in 2010 US dollars.Existing evidence indicate that average SIA operational costs were usually less than US$0.50 per person in 2010 dollars. However, the evidence is sparse, non-standardized, and largely out of date. Average operational costs per person generated from our analysis of country immunization plans are consistently higher than published estimates, approaching US$1.00 for injectable vaccines. The results illustrate that the benchmarks often used to project needs underestimate the true costs of SIAs and the analysis suggests that SIA operational costs have been increasing over time in real terms. Our assessment also illustrates that operational costs vary across several dimensions. Variations in the actual costs of SIAs likely to reflect the extents to which economies of scale associated with campaign-based delivery can be attained, the underlying strength of the immunization program, sensitivities to the relative ease of vaccine administration (i.e. orally, or by injection), and differences in disease-specific programmatic approaches. The assessment of SIA budgets by cost component illustrates that four cost drivers make up the largest proportion of costs across all vaccines: human resources, program management, social mobilization, and vehicles and transportation. These findings suggest that SIAs leverage existing health system infrastructure, reinforcing the fact that strong routine immunization programs are an important pre-requisite for achieving ADC/E/E goals.The results presented here will be useful for national and global-level actors involved in planning, budgeting, resource mobilization, and financing of SIAs in order to create more realistic assessments of resource requirements for both existing ADC/E/E efforts as well as for new vaccines that may deploy a catch-up campaign-based delivery component. However, limitations of our analysis suggest a need to conduct further research into operational costs of SIAs. Understanding the changing face of delivery costs and cost structures for SIAs will continue to be critical to avoid funding gaps and in order to improve vaccination coverage, reduce health inequities, and achieve the ADC/E/E goals many of which have been endorsed by the World Health Assembly and are included in the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan.
Pub.: 22 Jan '14, Pinned: 18 Sep '17
Abstract: Low- and middle-income countries need to consider economic issues such as cost-effectiveness, affordability and sustainability before introducing a program for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. However, many such countries lack the technical capacity and data to conduct their own analyses. Analysts informing policy decisions should address the following questions: 1) Is an economic analysis needed? 2) Should analyses address costs, epidemiological outcomes, or both? 3) If costs are considered, what sort of analysis is needed? 4) If outcomes are considered, what sort of model should be used? 5) How complex should the analysis be? 6) How should uncertainty be captured? 7) How should model results be communicated? Selecting the appropriate analysis is essential to ensure that all the important features of the decision problem are correctly represented, but that the analyses are not more complex than necessary. This report describes the consensus of an expert group convened by the World Health Organization, prioritizing key issues to be addressed when considering economic analyses to support HPV vaccine introduction in these countries.
Pub.: 01 Feb '13, Pinned: 18 Sep '17
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the cost effectiveness of introducing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is considered before such a strategy is implemented. However, developing countries often lack the technical capacity to perform and interpret results of economic appraisals of vaccines. To provide information about the feasibility of using such models in a developing country setting, we evaluated models of HPV vaccination in terms of their capacity, requirements, limitations and comparability.A literature review identified six HPV vaccination models suitable for low-income and middle-income country use and representative of the literature in terms of provenance and model structure. Each model was adapted by its developers using standardised data sets representative of two hypothetical developing countries (a low-income country with no screening and a middle-income country with limited screening). Model predictions before and after vaccination of adolescent girls were compared in terms of HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence, as was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of vaccination under different scenarios.None of the models perfectly reproduced the standardised data set provided to the model developers. However, they agreed that large decreases in type 16/18 HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence are likely to occur following vaccination. Apart from the Thai model (in which vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types were combined), vaccine-type HPV prevalence dropped by 75% to 100%, and vaccine-type cervical cancer incidence dropped by 80% to 100% across the models (averaging over age groups). The most influential factors affecting cost effectiveness were the discount rate, duration of vaccine protection, vaccine price and HPV prevalence. Demographic change, access to treatment and data resolution were found to be key issues to consider for models in developing countries.The results indicated the usefulness of considering results from several models and sets of modelling assumptions in decision making. Modelling groups were prepared to share their models and expertise to work with stakeholders in developing countries. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/55.
Pub.: 17 May '11, Pinned: 18 Sep '17
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