Clinician Scientist, UC Berkeley School of Optometry
Does your behaviors cause you to need glasses?
Subjective and Objective Measures of Human Behavior Are Not Equivalent EN Harb, M Guillen, JE Choi, M Chan, Z Sajjadi, CF Wildsoet
Purpose: Reports suggest that near work may be a risk factor for and outdoor activity protective against the development of myopia. In this study, the reliability of traditional questionnaires to measure habitual human behavior was assessed by comparison with objectively measured activities.
Methods: UC Berkeley students aged 18-24 (n=10 non-myopes, SER range: +1.63 to -0.63 D; n=19 myopes, -1.38 to -6.25 D) participated. Subjects wore continuously recording light sensor devices (Actiwatch) on their non-dominant arm over clothes for 2 weeks. Data were averaged over 1-min epochs, with white light intensity ≥1000 lux used as a proxy for time outdoors. As a measure of near work, subjects were prompted to estimate hours of near work every evening by the device. A subjective questionnaire about habitual activities was also completed by each subject at the start of their wearing period and once during the 2-week period, with responses from the two questionnaires averaged for use in analysis. Questionnaire reliability, as compared to objective Actiwatch data, was assessed for academic (AP) and/or non-academic (NAP) periods (n=14 measured during both periods).
Results: Overall, subjects misreported time spent indoors and outdoors, with individuals varying widely in the accuracy of their estimates, especially in the NAP (Questionnaires – Actiwatch: +/- 300 min outdoors vs. +/- 400 min indoors). Similarly, subjects misreported their near work activities, especially in the AP (+/- 200 min AP vs. +/- 100 min NAP). The nature of reporting errors also appeared to vary between the two groups. For example, for NAP, myopes overestimated by ~20% and non-myopes underestimated by ~30%, time spent outdoors (p=0.03), and myopes tended to underestimate indoor activity more than non-myopes (~10% diff, p=0.07). For AP, myopes generally underestimated and non-myopes overestimated near work activities.
Conclusions: These results demonstrate the unreliability of questionnaire data in capturing the habitual behaviors of young adults. Given the further possibility that reporting errors may differ between myopes and non-myopes, the use of objective measures of habitual activity in studies aimed at advancing our understanding of the role of behavior in myopia development and/or progression would seem imperative.
Abstract: Provided is an optical coherence tomography apparatus expected to facilitate observation of reliable analyzed image data to improve inspection efficiency. The tomography apparatus includes: an acquisition unit configured to acquire a tomographic image of an object to be inspected; an identifying unit configured to identify an image display area corresponding to a part to be inspected of the object to be inspected in the tomographic image; a determination unit configured to determine a significant area and a non-significant area based on a positional relationship between a periphery of the image display area and the tomographic image; and a display control unit configured to control a display unit to display image data based on the tomographic image and data concerning the non-significant area together in a designated display form.
Pub.: 07 Feb '17, Pinned: 16 Aug '17
Abstract: A mask is provided that is configured to increase the depth of focus of a patient. The mask can include an aperture configured to transmit along an optical axis substantially all visible incident light. The mask can further include a portion surrounding at least a portion of the aperture. The portion may be configured to be substantially opaque to visible electromagnetic radiation and be substantially transparent to electromagnetic radiation transmitted from an ocular examination device (e.g., substantially transparent to at least some non-visible electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between about 750 nm and about 1500 nm).
Pub.: 17 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jun '17
Abstract: The method include: (a) displaying at least one dynamic target image of at least one sign over a display area; (b) receiving subjective feedback from the subject indicating that the subject is positioned at a maximum distance of best acuity (MDBA) from the target image, wherein the MDBA is the maximum distance in which the subject recognizes the sign; (c) measuring one or more parameter associated with distance, during the time the subject has reached the MDBA distance, using at least one sensor; (d) estimating the MDBA by estimating the distance between the eye of the subject and the display area in which the target image is displayed by using the sensor data and (e) calculating the refractive error of the eye according to the estimated MDBA and characteristics of the target image.
Pub.: 24 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jun '17
Abstract: Methods and systems are disclosed herein for determining a biometric state of a user or an emotional state of a user. Based on the determined biometric state or emotional state, a determination is made whether information about a location is restricted. In response to determining that information about a location is restricted, a portion of the information about the location is identified, and access to the portion of the information is disabled.
Pub.: 27 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Jun '17
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