I have a Doctorate in Biotechnology and an expert in machine learning based in Hong Kong.
Medicine and food gets to consumers via a global supply chain, so ensuring quality is paramount
A novel solution could be the Blockchain, the technology powering the famous cryptocurrency - Bitcoin. The Blockchain is based on a shareable, digital ledger made up of 'blocks', which addresses the issue of transactional trust. When data is recorded into a new block, it is unchangeable making the blockchain a verifiable transactional record between parties. The Internet of Things (IOT) is the concept of connecting physical devices with on or off switches to the Internet.
The application of IOT in combination with Blockchain in food safety is not new. IBM had previously applied IOT and Blockchain to trace the provenance of food, like peanut butter and pork chops. Also, they have completed two pilots with Walmart - moving and tracking pork produce from Chinese farms and Latin American products to the United States. The technology allows Walmart to easily identify the producer and initiate recalls when peanut butter is of poor quality.
The blockchain has also been applied to trace the ingredients of pharmaceutical drugs and thus to authenticate the integrity of the drug supply chain. By combining Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies with blockchain, companies track drugs digitally.
Chronicled uses NFC stickers attached to consumer products and allow consumers to see every stage of the supply chain. This provides transparency about a product's source of origin and production history and information on whether companies abide by sustainable practices.
An exciting development in provenance and authentication is the Cryptoseal - an adhesive from Chronicled.
The compromise-evident product registers the identity of an object and its registrant and asset metadata. This identity data is then immutably registered and verified on a blockchain, representing an important step towards immutable supply chain provenance and asset protection.
Abstract: Today the cloud plays a central role in storing, processing, and distributing data. Despite contributing to the rapid development of various applications, including the IoT, the current centralized storage architecture has led into a myriad of isolated data silos and is preventing the full potential of holistic data-driven analytics for IoT data. In this abstract, we advocate a data-centric design for IoT with focus on resilience, sharing, and auditable protection of information. We introduce the initial design of our blockchain-based end-to-end encrypted data storage system. We enable a secure and persistent data management, by utilizing the blockchain as an auditable access control layer to a decentralized storage layer.
Pub.: 22 May '17, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: The globalization of the pharmaceutical supply chain has introduced new challenges, chief among them, fighting the international criminal trade in fake medicines. As the manufacture, supply, and distribution of drugs becomes more complex, so does the need for innovative technology-based solutions to protect patients globally. Areas covered: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the science/health, information technology, computer science, and general academic literature with the aim of identifying cutting-edge existing and emerging "digital" solutions to combat fake medicines. Our review identified five distinct categories of technology including mobile, radio frequency identification, advanced computational methods, online verification, and block chain technology. Expert opinion: Digital fake medicine solutions are unifying platforms that integrate different types of anti-counterfeiting technologies as complementary solutions, improve information sharing and data collection, and are designed to overcome existing barriers of adoption and implementation. Investment in this next generation technology is essential to ensure the future security and integrity of the global drug supply chain.
Pub.: 30 Mar '17, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: Heretofore the concept of "blockchain" has not been precisely defined. Accordingly the potential useful applications of this technology have been largely inflated. This work sidesteps the question of what constitutes a blockchain as such and focuses on the architectural components of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, insofar as possible, in isolation. We consider common problems inherent in the design of effective supply chain management systems. With each identified problem we propose a solution that utilizes one or more component aspects of Bitcoin. This culminates in five design principles for increased efficiency in supply chain management systems through the application of incentive mechanisms and data structures native to the Bitcoin cryptocurrency protocol.
Pub.: 12 Mar '17, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: An interesting research problem in our age of Big Data is that of determining provenance. Granular evaluation of provenance of physical goods--e.g. tracking ingredients of a pharmaceutical or demonstrating authenticity of luxury goods--has often not been possible with today's items that are produced and transported in complex, inter-organizational, often internationally-spanning supply chains. Recent adoption of Internet of Things and Blockchain technologies give promise at better supply chain provenance. We are particularly interested in the blockchain as many favoured use cases of blockchain are for provenance tracking. We are also interested in applying ontologies as there has been some work done on knowledge provenance, traceability, and food provenance using ontologies. In this paper, we make a case for why ontologies can contribute to blockchain design. To support this case, we analyze a traceability ontology and translate some of its representations to smart contracts that execute a provenance trace and enforce traceability constraints on the Ethereum blockchain platform.
Pub.: 28 Aug '16, Pinned: 12 Jun '17
Abstract: This study explores the role of power asymmetry in the food supply chain, especially in relation to the channel conflict, and ultimate breakdown that culminated in the infamous European horsemeat scandal across Europe. Drawing upon the power-dependency, and to some extent, social exchange theory, the study posits that mutual dependence between single supplier–multiple buyer relationships where major retailers are the weaker partners, may require a revisitation of risk management practices in that sector. In addition to the fraudulent and unethical practices established from media reporting on the horsemeat scandal, the study argues that the power asymmetry/imbalance may have contributed to a supplier culture that tolerated the unethical decision making leading to the horsemeat scandal. Based on an extensive review of secondary data sources comprising media reports on the scandal and a review of the academic literature on power dependency and social exchange theories, the study attempts to map out the root of the crisis, how to forestall future recurrence, and the managerial and policy implications of these. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pub.: 27 Jul '16, Pinned: 13 Jun '17
Abstract: Abstract Embedded devices are going to be used extremely in Internet of Things (IoT) environments. The small and tiny IoT devices will operate and communicate each other without involvement of users, while their operations must be correct and protected against various attacks. In this paper, we focus on a secure firmware update issue, which is a fundamental security challenge for the embedded devices in an IoT environment. A new firmware update scheme that utilizes a blockchain technology is proposed to securely check a firmware version, validate the correctness of firmware, and download the latest firmware for the embedded devices. In the proposed scheme, an embedded device requests its firmware update to nodes in a blockchain network and gets a response to determine whether its firmware is up-to-date or not. If not latest, the embedded device downloads the latest firmware from a peer-to-peer firmware sharing network of the nodes. Even in the case that the version of the firmware is up-to-date, its integrity, i.e., correctness of firmware, is checked. The proposed scheme guarantees that the embedded device’s firmware is up-to-date while not tampered. Attacks targeting known vulnerabilities on firmware of embedded devices are thus mitigated.AbstractEmbedded devices are going to be used extremely in Internet of Things (IoT) environments. The small and tiny IoT devices will operate and communicate each other without involvement of users, while their operations must be correct and protected against various attacks. In this paper, we focus on a secure firmware update issue, which is a fundamental security challenge for the embedded devices in an IoT environment. A new firmware update scheme that utilizes a blockchain technology is proposed to securely check a firmware version, validate the correctness of firmware, and download the latest firmware for the embedded devices. In the proposed scheme, an embedded device requests its firmware update to nodes in a blockchain network and gets a response to determine whether its firmware is up-to-date or not. If not latest, the embedded device downloads the latest firmware from a peer-to-peer firmware sharing network of the nodes. Even in the case that the version of the firmware is up-to-date, its integrity, i.e., correctness of firmware, is checked. The proposed scheme guarantees that the embedded device’s firmware is up-to-date while not tampered. Attacks targeting known vulnerabilities on firmware of embedded devices are thus mitigated.
Pub.: 13 Sep '16, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) offers the infrastructure of the information society. It hosts smart objects that automatically collect and exchange data of various kinds, directly gathered from sensors or generated by aggregations. Suitable coordination primitives and analysis mechanisms are in order to design and reason about IoT systems, and to intercept the implied technological shifts. We address these issues from a foundational point of view. To study them, we define IoT-LySa, a process calculus endowed with a static analysis that tracks the provenance and the manipulation of IoT data, and how they flow in the system. The results of the analysis can be used by a designer to check the behaviour of smart objects, in particular to verify non-functional properties, among which security.
Pub.: 26 Oct '16, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: The Internet of Things IoT is experiencing exponential growth in research and industry, but it still suffers from privacy and security vulnerabilities. Conventional security and privacy approaches tend to be inapplicable for IoT, mainly due to its decentralized topology and the resource-constraints of the majority of its devices. BlockChain BC that underpin the crypto-currency Bitcoin have been recently used to provide security and privacy in peer-to-peer networks with similar topologies to IoT. However, BCs are computationally expensive and involve high bandwidth overhead and delays, which are not suitable for IoT devices. This position paper proposes a new secure, private, and lightweight architecture for IoT, based on BC technology that eliminates the overhead of BC while maintaining most of its security and privacy benefits. The described method is investigated on a smart home application as a representative case study for broader IoT applications. The proposed architecture is hierarchical, and consists of smart homes, an overlay network and cloud storages coordinating data transactions with BC to provide privacy and security. Our design uses different types of BCs depending on where in the network hierarchy a transaction occurs, and uses distributed trust methods to ensure a decentralized topology. Qualitative evaluation of the architecture under common threat models highlights its effectiveness in providing security and privacy for IoT applications.
Pub.: 18 Aug '16, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: Food safety is a scientific field which includes a number of routines and inspections at every stage of the food chain that should be adopted to avoid potentially dangerous health risks. Novel and efficient solutions across the supply chain are the consequence of constant upgrades of information and communication technologies. With the help of internet of things (IoT) connected testing equipment, food quality can be monitored at any point from farm to table, connecting at the same time food producers, transportation and hospitality/retail companies. Relying on the fact that food transporting and packaging units are the most critical points in food production, the survey of IoT applications in food packaging and transportation is given in this paper. To demonstrate the significance of IoT appliance and defined concepts, a proposal of low cost solution based on IoT for real-;time food traceability and monitoring in food transportation process is presented.
Pub.: 02 Mar '16, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: Nowadays, the development of traditional business models become more and more mature that people use them to guide various kinds of E-business activities. Internet of things (IoT), being an innovative revolution over the Internet, becomes a new platform for E-business. However, old business models could hardly fit for the E-business on the IoT. In this article, we 1) propose an IoT E-business model, which is specially designed for the IoT E-business; 2) redesign many elements in traditional E-business models; 3) realize the transaction of smart property and paid data on the IoT with the help of P2P trade based on the Blockchain and smart contract. We also experiment our design and make a comprehensive discuss.
Pub.: 13 Apr '16, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: Providing an appropriate level of accessibility to and tracking of data or process elements in large volumes of medical data, is an essential requirement in the Big Data era. Researchers require systems that provide traceability of information through provenance data capture and management to support their clinical analyses. We present an approach that has been adopted in the neuGRID and N4U projects, which aimed to provide detailed traceability to support research analysis processes in the study of biomarkers for Alzheimers disease, but is generically applicable across medical systems. To facilitate the orchestration of complex, large-scale analyses in these projects we have adapted CRISTAL, a workflow and provenance tracking solution. The use of CRISTAL has provided a rich environment for neuroscientists to track and manage the evolution of data and workflow usage over time in neuGRID and N4U.
Pub.: 29 Nov '15, Pinned: 13 Jun '17
Abstract: Authors: C.N. Verdouw ; R.M. Robbemond ; T. Verwaart ; J. Wolfert ; A.J.M. Beulens Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17517575.2015.1072643?ai=z4&mi=3fqos0&af=R Citation: Enterprise Information Systems Publication Date: 2015-08-21T04:15:01Z Journal: Enterprise Information Systems
Pub.: 21 Aug '15, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
Abstract: Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.
Pub.: 07 May '14, Pinned: 08 Jun '17
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