PhD student, Hudson Institute of Medical Research
Interesting findings on the field of Helicobacter pylori research
Gastric cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The major cause of gastric disease is the stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Infection with H. pylori can last decades long, leading to damage in the gut, by a process termed inflammation.
Although half of the world's population has H. pylori living in their stomachs, the majority of those individuals will remain symptomless. What is most intriguing is why only 1-2% of the infected population will develop severe diseases such as stomach cancer. This research focusses on the fewer 1-2%, to answer the question: What distinguishes those that will develop stomach cancer to those that will not?
Infection with H. pylori leads to the production of various proteins or host factors produced by our own cells. These factors function to defend the stomach from further infection. However, much like a double edged sword, although these factors are produced by us, and for us, it can also cause damage to our bodies in the process. Therefore, by investigating a host factor, we can better understand how stomach diseases caused by H. pylori can develop into such serious conditions.
Currently, our scientific knowledge of this area is still quite poor. Despite the existing treatment regime of antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori infection, it is ineffective at treating later stages of disease and does not prevent repeated infection. However, by targeting a host factor rather than the bacterium itself, we may be able to identify a disease marker of gastric cancer risk in patients with H. pylori infection, and may be able to develop a useful tool to improve the outcome of H. pylori infection.
Abstract: Mouse infection studies have shown that interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine, is required for the development of severe pathology induced by chronic Helicobacter infection. This finding is largely based on studies performed using mice that have polarised Th1 responses i.e. C57BL/6 animals. The current work aims to investigate the role of IFN-γ in Helicobacter-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice which have Th2-polarised immune responses.At 7 months post-infection with Helicobacter felis, IFN-γ deficiency in BALB/c mice had no significant effect on H. felis colonisation levels in the gastric mucosa, nor on humoral responses, or gastritis severity. Ifng−/− animals with chronic H. felis infection did, however, develop significantly fewer lymphoid follicle lesions, as well as increased IL-4 splenocyte responses, when compared with infected Ifng+/+ mice (P = 0.015 and P = 0.0004, respectively).The work shows that in mice on a BALB/c background, IFN-γ is not required for bacterial clearance, antibody responses, nor gastric inflammation. Conversely, IFN-γ appears to play a role in the development of gastric lymphoid follicles, which are precursor lesions to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. This study highlights the importance of mouse host background on the susceptibility to Helicobacter-induced pathologies.
Pub.: 21 Nov '16, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Persistent stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori causes chronic mucosal inflammation (gastritis), which is widely recognized as an essential precursor to gastric cancer. The IL-1 interleukin family cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 have emerged as central mediators of mucosal inflammation. Here, we review the regulation and function of these cytokines in H. pylori-induced inflammation and carcinogenesis.
Pub.: 12 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Experimental infection of mice with Helicobacter felis reproduces many aspects of the gastritis observed in Helicobacter pylori-infected humans. The development of gastric inflammatory lesions in chronically infected inbred mice is host-dependent; in BALB/c mice, gastric B-cell MALT lymphomas were observed, whilst other murine hosts (e.g. C57BL/6) developed severe glandular hyperplasia. The aims of this investigation were to characterize and immunophenotype Helicobacter-induced inflammatory lesions in mice with an outbred genetic background. Swiss mice (n=10 per group) were either inoculated with a suspension of H. felis or left untreated. H. felis-inoculated mice and age-matched control animals were killed 13 months later. The severity of gastric inflammatory lesions in the animals was graded and the number and distribution of B (CD45R(+)) and T (CD3(+)) lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Compared with control mice, animals with long-term H. felis infection developed severe hyperplastic gastritis (0.80+/-0.63 vs. 2.7+/-0.68), with epithelial dedifferentiation (0. 40+/-0.52 vs. 2.3+/-0.82) and lengthening of the pits and glands (0. 46+/-0.05 vs. 0.8+/-0.19). Gastric CD45R(+) and CD3(+) lymphocyte scores were significantly elevated (r=0.803) in infected animals, while lymphoepithelial lesions and polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltrates were absent. Although prominent lymphoid follicles were present in the tissues of all infected animals, and in one control animal, only a proportion (55%) of the mucosal follicles had a dominant B-cell phenotype (defined as > or =75% CD45R(+) labelling), and all were poorly labelled with anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies. It was concluded that the lesions in outbred Swiss mice differed from B-cell MALT lymphomas. In contrast to inbred mice, outbred animals developed both glandular and lymphoid tissue lesions to chronic H. felis infection. It is suggested that the default T-helper phenotype of the host influences glandular lesion formation or B-cell lymphomagenesis in this model of infection.
Pub.: 06 Jul '00, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: This article summarizes the main findings concerning Helicobacter pylori associated with gastric MALT lymphoma (GML). Considered together, GML strains based on their virulence factor profile appear to be less virulent than those associated with peptic ulcers or gastric adenocarcinoma. A particular Lewis antigen profile has been identified in GML strains and could represent an alternative adaptive mechanism to escape the host immune response thereby allowing continuous antigenic stimulation of infiltrating lymphocytes.
Pub.: 12 Apr '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: APRIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor cytokine family involved in the regulation of B-cell immunity. We present a study of the infection by Helicobacter species of transgenic (Tg) C57BL6 mice, ectopically expressing the human form of APRIL. Wild-type (WT) and APRIL Tg mice were infected with Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter pylori and compared with noninfected animals. Mice were euthanized 18 months after infection, and inflammatory responses and histologic alterations were analyzed. Flow cytometry results revealed that WT-infected mice had less leukocyte infiltration than APRIL Tg-infected mice. In WT-infected mice, infiltrates in gastric tissues were predominantly composed of T cells, mainly CD4(+) for H. pylori and CD8(+) for H. felis. In APRIL Tg-infected mice, leukocyte infiltrates were composed of B cells with few CD4(+) T cells for both species. B cells expressed B surface markers compatible with a marginal zone origin. These results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. B cells in particular were involved in lymphoepithelial lesions, a hallmark of gastric MALT lymphoma. Monoclonality was observed in a few infiltrates in the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions. These results confirm the importance of APRIL in the development of gastric lymphoid infiltrates induced by Helicobacter species in vivo. We believe that APRIL Tg mice infected by Helicobacter species may represent a novel animal model of gastric lymphomagenesis.
Pub.: 02 May '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17
Abstract: Gastric cancer is typically diagnosed at a late stage, leading to poor prognoses. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for 70% of gastric cancers globally, and patients with this bacterial infection often present with early stages of the carcinogenic pathway such as inflammation or gastritis. Although many patients continue to progress to advanced-stage disease after antibacterial treatment, there are no follow-up screening protocols for patients with a history of H. pylori.Several biomarkers (Lgr5, CD133, CD44) become upregulated during gastric carcinogenesis. A logistic regression model is developed using clinical data from 59 patients at different stages of the carcinogenic pathway to identify the likelihood of being at an advanced stage of disease for all combinations of age, sex, and marker positivity. Using these likelihood distributions and the observed rate of marker positivity increase, time to high likelihood (probability >0.8) of advanced disease for individual patients is predicted.A strong correlation between marker positivity and disease stage was found for all three markers. Disease stage was accurately classified by the respective regression models for more than 86% of retrospective patients. Highly patient-specific predictions of time to onset of dysplasia were made, allowing the classification of 17 patients initially diagnosed with intestinal metaplasia into high-, intermediate-, or low-risk categories.We present an approach designed to integrate pathology, mathematics, and statistics for detection of the earliest precancerous, treatable lesion. Given the simplicity and robustness of the framework, such technique has the potential to guide personalized screening schedules to minimize the risk of undetected malignant transformation.
Pub.: 21 Jul '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico. The 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region was sequenced using MiSeq platform for taxonomic profiles. PICRUSt was used to predict functional profiles. Human Microbiome Project was used for comparison. We showed that Hp is the most abundant member of gastric microbiota in both Chinese and Mexican samples (51 and 24%, respectively), followed by oral-associated bacteria. Taxonomic (phylum-level) profiles of stomach microbiota resembled oral microbiota, especially when the Helicobacter reads were removed. The functional profiles of stomach microbiota, however, were distinct from those found in other body sites and had higher inter-subject dissimilarity. Gastric microbiota composition did not differ by Hp colonization status or stomach anatomic sites, but did differ between paired non-malignant and tumor tissues in either Chinese or Mexican samples. Our study showed that Hp is the dominant member of the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota in many gastric cancer patients. Our results provide insights on the gastric microbiota composition and function in gastric cancer patients, which may have important clinical implications.
Pub.: 22 Jul '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: The paper aims to discuss the global trends in gastric cancer incidence in relation to important factors involved in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.Despite a significant worldwide decline, gastric cancer remains a common cause of cancer death. The decline has been multifactorial and preceded the fall in Helicobacter pylori prevalence. The initial decline was associated with changes in food preservation and availability, especially of fresh fruits and vegetables, followed by a decline in the primary etiologic factor, H. pylori. Gastric cancer incidence remains high in East Asia, intermediate in Latin America, and low in developed countries. Significant racial/ethnic variability exists. The rapid decline in incidence in East Asia will continue as primary and secondary prevention strategies are implemented. The incidence in Latin America is unlikely to decline significantly over the next few decades given high H. pylori prevalence in the young. Ultimately, global H. pylori eradication will be needed to largely eliminate gastric cancer.
Pub.: 22 Jul '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Alteration of microbiota has been associated with intestinal, inflammatory and neurological diseases. An abundance of “good bacteria,” such as Bifidobacterium, or their products has been generally believed to be beneficial for any diseases, whereas “bad bacteria,” such as pathogenic Helicobacter pylori, are assumed to be always detrimental for hosts. However, this is not the case when we compare and contrast the association of the gut microbiota with two neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. After H. pylori infection, pro-inflammatory T helper (Th)1 and Th17 immune responses are initially induced to eradicate bacteria. However, H. pylori evades the host immune response by inducing Th2 cells and regulatory T cells that produce anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. Suppression of anti-bacterial Th1/Th17 cells by regulatory T cells might enhance gastric H. pylori propagation, followed by a cascade reaction involving vitamin B12 and folic acid malabsorption, plasma homocysteine elevation, and reactive oxygen species induction. This can damage the blood-brain barrier, leading to accumulation of amyloid-β in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, this suppression of pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 responses to H. pylori has protective effects on the hosts, as it prevents uncontrolled gastritis as well as suppresses the induction of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 cells, which can mediate neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis. The above scenario might explain why chronic H. pylori infection is positively associated with Alzheimer's disease, whereas it is negatively associated with multiple sclerosis. Finally, we list “10 pitfalls of microbiota studies,” which will be useful for evaluating and designing clinical and experimental microbiota studies.
Pub.: 23 Jul '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Recent advances in host-microbe interaction studies in organoid cultures have shown great promise and have laid the foundation for much more refined future studies using these systems. Modeling of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in cerebral organoids have helped us understand its association with microcephaly. Similarly, the pathogenesis of bacterial (Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile) and viral (Norovirus, Rotaviruses) infections have been precisely dissected in organoid cultures. Additionally, direct associations between microbial colonization of tissues and diseases like cancer have also been deciphered. Here we discuss the most recent and striking studies on host-microbe interactions in organoid cultures, highlighting various methods which can be used for developing microbe-organoid co-culture systems.
Pub.: 02 Aug '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17