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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Olusegun Ojumoola

Assistant Lecturer, University of Ilorin

PINBOARD SUMMARY

Resource poor farmers need more sustainable options for grain protection to curb post harvest losses

My research area is agricultural entomology with specific focus on the management of insect pests that cause damage to agricultural produce on the field and in storage. Such insect pests like cutworms, grasshoppers, flour and grain beetles, leaf miners, fruit flies etc if not properly managed or controlled may result in significant crop and post harvest losses. Such losses holds significant consequences to global food security. In other words, many countries especially the poor ones stand the risk of severe hunger if insect pests of important staple crops are not properly managed. In the sub Saharan Africa where my research is mainly focused, farmers are mostly poor resourced and cannot afford the costly insecticides. In addition, many of them do not have access to good extension guide and end up abusing and misusing synthetic pesticides. The result of these has been low agricultural output and various health and environmental problems. I try to develop insect management options that are more cost effective, safer to the environment and generally more sustainable. My research is captured under an integrated pest management approach as opposed to the use of chemical insecticides alone. I however try to use tactics that farmers can easily have access to as well as practice with little technical know how. The overall aim is to improve the standard of living of crop farmers and promote global food security.

3 ITEMS PINNED

Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

Abstract: Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be minimized. We further highlight the importance of supporting conventional breeding techniques by molecular techniques such as molecular markers linked to bruchid resistance.

Pub.: 06 Jul '17, Pinned: 31 Aug '17

Lethal and sublethal responses of Sitophilus zeamais populations to essential oils

Abstract: Abstract The present study aimed to assess the lethal and sublethal responses of five populations of S. zeamais to the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Piper hispidinervum, through toxicity, locomotor behavior (flight and walking activities) and physiological (respiration rate and body mass) evaluations. The populations of S. zeamais were obtained from Machado—MG, Paracatu—MG, Piracicaba—SP, Recife—PE and Tunápolis—SC. To estimate the LC50 of each oil for each population, fumigation tests were performed. The population from Recife exhibited the lowest instantaneous rate of increase (ri) as well the lowest consumption of grain mass. However, Piracicaba was considered the susceptibility pattern, presenting the lowest LC50 for both essential oils, no statistical difference was observed among populations or treatments in the flight activity bioassays. The essential oils effect on walking activity and respiration rates varied among populations. The population from Recife presented the highest walked distance and walk speed, with the lowest resting time and number of stops, as well as the lowest respiration rate and body mass. The present study highlights the importance of the study on population responses, as the five populations of S. zeamais exhibited different patterns of toxic and behavioral effects when subjected to the essential oils of P. hispidinervum and O. basilicum.AbstractThe present study aimed to assess the lethal and sublethal responses of five populations of S. zeamais to the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Piper hispidinervum, through toxicity, locomotor behavior (flight and walking activities) and physiological (respiration rate and body mass) evaluations. The populations of S. zeamais were obtained from Machado—MG, Paracatu—MG, Piracicaba—SP, Recife—PE and Tunápolis—SC. To estimate the LC50 of each oil for each population, fumigation tests were performed. The population from Recife exhibited the lowest instantaneous rate of increase (ri) as well the lowest consumption of grain mass. However, Piracicaba was considered the susceptibility pattern, presenting the lowest LC50 for both essential oils, no statistical difference was observed among populations or treatments in the flight activity bioassays. The essential oils effect on walking activity and respiration rates varied among populations. The population from Recife presented the highest walked distance and walk speed, with the lowest resting time and number of stops, as well as the lowest respiration rate and body mass. The present study highlights the importance of the study on population responses, as the five populations of S. zeamais exhibited different patterns of toxic and behavioral effects when subjected to the essential oils of P. hispidinervum and O. basilicum.S. zeamaisOcimum basilicumPiper hispidinervum,S. zeamais5050S. zeamaisP. hispidinervumO. basilicum

Pub.: 09 Dec '16, Pinned: 31 Aug '17

Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

Abstract: The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses.

Pub.: 11 Apr '02, Pinned: 31 Aug '17