POSTGRADUATE STUDENT, INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
Heavy metals pollution in river water may deteriorate living organism and their environment
It is well known that trace elements in water, especially heavy metals, can impact human health. The widespread contamination by heavy metals is of major concern because of their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulative nature. The toxicity of heavy metals has long been a concern since it is very important to the health of people and ecology. Human activities such as industrial and municipal effluents, as well as atmospheric deposition, geologic weathering, and agricultural activities are the main sources of metals in rivers. Advanced statistical tools may provide the sources of the pollution and prediction n the future.
Abstract: Multivariate statistical techniques, such as analysis of variance, cluster analysis (CA), correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA), were applied to determine the spatial and temporal variations of dissolved heavy metals in the Tigris River at 7 different sites spread over the river stretch of about 500 km during the period of February 2008 to January 2009. The results indicated that Fe, Cr, and Ni were the most abundant elements in the river water, whereas Cd and As were the less abundant. Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn showed significant spatial variations, reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. The lowest total concentration of heavy metals was found at site 2 downstream of the Dicle Dam due to clean water from the dam. The concentrations of most metals were found lower when compared with results of previous studies due to reduction of the activity of the copper mine plant and the construction of two dams on the river. The lowest total concentrations were determined in February due to high precipitation and snow melts. Hierarchical agglomerative CA classified all the sampling sites into three main groups of spatial similarities. Clusters 1 (Maden and Bismil), 2 (Cizre), and 3 (Eğil, Diyarbakır, Batman, and Hasankeyf) corresponded to moderate polluted and relatively low polluted regions, respectively. PCA/FA, CA, and correlation analysis suggest that Cu, Ni, and Zn are controlled by anthropogenic sources.
Pub.: 29 Mar '13, Pinned: 11 Dec '17
Abstract: This study emphasizes on identification of source and accessing the spatial variation of dissolved heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the rivers of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve India, the UNESCO world heritage site. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), PCA (Principal Component Analysis) as well as FA (Factor Analysis) are used for assessing the significant difference in means of metals concentration among the sites and understanding the sources of these pollutants. Three principal components with cumulative variance of 32, 55, and 73 %, show that Pb, Ni and Cd are closely associated with each other indicating an anthropogenic origin of these metals. Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) values indicate that areas close to densely populated sites are affected by elevated metals concentration due to anthropogenic activities. The ratio between the concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb in sites and the maximum respective permissible limit for these metals for conserved habitat is Log10 normalized to understand the threats of these pollutants over the distributaries of Sundarbans. Pb pollution is prevalent in the areas that rely on the fossil fuel-operated boats, for transport, whereas higher Cd concentration is found in the areas dependent on rechargeable batteries to meet their energy demand. So these anthropogenic activities and mal-practices may be responsible for the heavy metal pollution in this region. The study concludes that gradual increase in metal pollution in river water due to anthropogenic activities, particularly Pb and Cd, could have a negative impact on the conserved flora and fauna of this ecosystem.
Pub.: 27 Apr '16, Pinned: 11 Dec '17
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