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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Godswill James Udom

PhD Student, University of Uyo

PINBOARD SUMMARY

I am an early-career scientist with passion to understand the mechanisms of actions, interactions as well as the mechanistic approach of toxicities of drugs, chemicals and physical agents at the molecular level. I am also interested in the safety of pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies and chemicals. Specifically, I am interested in the human health risk assessment of PAHs, heavy metals and endocrine disruptors as well as the toxicological implications/public health significance of these substances. I have a broad background in human physiology and pharmacology, with specific training in toxicology. With continued training and appropriate exposures, Im sure to have the expertise, leadership and motivation necessary to be successful in this field of endeavor. My current research when completed will evaluate and validate the medicinal or therapeutic claims of the selected herbal remedies using different but suitable animal models. Also, a subchronic/chronic toxicological evaluation as well as reversal of test effects of these herbal remedies on the vital organs of the lower animals will be carried out. But more importantly, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals of human health concerns (e.g lead, cadmium, arsenic etc) and endocrine disrupting substances and their toxicities in these selected herbal preparations will be ascertained so as to determine whether or not they are above the international permissible limits. The expected outcome will be extrapolated to the human population, providing basis for informed decision making and policy formulations.

4 ITEMS PINNED

Medicinal and Therapeutic Potential of Herbs and Plant Metabolites / Extracts Countering Viral Pathogens - Current Knowledge and Future Prospects.

Abstract: Recently, there has been a remarkable progress in the field of antiviral herbal therapy owing to increasing concerns about the development of drug resistance and limited advances in the field of antiviral drug discovery. In almost all countries, medicinal plants have been used widely throughout history for the treatment of diseases and infections as traditional healing remedies due to their broad therapeutic spectrum and minimal or no side effects. As synthetic antiviral drugs are not available against most of the viral agents, hence all possible efforts have been focused on the search for new drugs and complementary/alternative medicines from different herbal formulations. Medicinal plants contain extractable biochemical and bioactive compounds, which can target certain viruses or can cure or prevent several viral diseases and infections. Despite their long history of use, the research and scientific evidences regarding the use of medicinal plants and natural products as prophylactics, therapeutics, and their health multiple beneficial applications have only gained momentum in past few decades. Many scientific studies have been undertaken, which range from the separation of active substances to the comprehension of the therapeutic mechanisms of antiviral herbs, their potent applications in the neutralization of viral pathogens and clinical trials. Consequently, hundreds of herbs and plant metabolites have been screened, identified, and tested for their antiviral activities; fortunately, some have shown significant medicinal activity in the amelioration or prevention of various viral diseases in both preclinical and clinical studies. This review addresses the scientific significance of various herbal formulations of different medicinal plants and their extracts, which have shown promise or been proven effective for the treatment of diseases caused by various viral pathogens, including emerging and re-emerging virus.

Pub.: 31 Jan '18, Pinned: 24 Feb '18

Ethnopharmacology and toxicology of Pakistani medicinal plants used to treat gynecological complaints and sexually transmitted infections

Abstract: Publication date: January 2018 Source:South African Journal of Botany, Volume 114 Author(s): A. Tariq, M. Adnan, A. Iqbal, S. Sadia, Y. Fan, A. Nazar, S. Mussarat, M. Ahmad, O.A. Olatunji, S. Begum, P. Mazari, B. Ambreen, S.N. Khan, R. Ullah, A.L. Khan Gynecological problems and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are greatly affecting women health especially in developing countries due to lack of modern reproductive health facilities, poverty and different cultural norms. Consequently, a large population of Pakistan turns toward ethno-medicinal healthcare systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. The present review was framed by searching different search engines for the collection of fragmented literature on indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Pakistani women to treat gynecological complaints and STIs. In total, 116 plant species used in Pakistan to treat a variety of gynecological complaints and STIs. The dominant plant families used for the preparation of herbal remedies are Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae. Majority of the plants were reportedly found to be used against menses (46 plant species) followed by gonorrhea (30 plant species). The frequency of citation was also found higher for these two complications, which might be due to the higher prevalence of these problems in Pakistan. The highest number of plant species (59) was reported from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan due to more cultural resistance as compared to other provinces. Sørensen similarity index showed the highest consensus between Pashtun and Punjabi cultures of Pakistan in terms of plants and parts usage for species Convolvulus arvensis, Justicia adhatoda, Achyranthes aspera, Berberis lycium, Punica granatum and Withania somnifera. Interestingly, these plants were also reported to treat multiple reproductive problems indicating their high bioactivity. Thirteen plants including A. aspera and P. granatum have also been reportedly evaluated pharmacologically and found active confirming the efficacy of traditional medicines. Few plants (17% of total) were reportedly evaluated for toxicity, among which Nerium oleander, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica showed toxic effects on living systems. The present findings stress the need for further in-depth studies on the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of commonly important medicinal plants used for multiple gynecological complaints and STIs in different cultures in order to provide reliable information to the primary users and development of novel drugs.

Pub.: 17 Dec '17, Pinned: 24 Feb '18

Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes.

Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 μg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 μg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Altogether, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM has a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2.

Pub.: 16 Feb '18, Pinned: 24 Feb '18