A pinboard by
Nader Abu Farha

MD ( Medical doctor ) Student , An Najah National University & An Najah National University Teaching Hospital


Trying hard to improve health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients

Introduction : Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common chronic neurodegenerative disorder, it’s a complex disease affecting both motor and non-motor systems in the brain. PD is characterized by motor symptoms including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. However, less is known about non-motor symptoms (NMS), which are very common and often go under recognized and unreported by both patients and clinicians. NMS are comprised of a large range of symptoms : bad sleep quality, fatigue, depression, neuropsychiatric, autonomic, GI and other symptoms. As the disease progresses, the effectiveness of the medication regimen often decreases, daily functioning and social participation become increasingly compromised. NMS are increasingly prevalent over the course of the disease and have become important determinants of patients’ quality of life with PD progression, thus PD has a great impact on the quality of life of the patients.

Objectives : To identify the clinical and demographic factors that are associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with PD and how to deal with these factors to improve HRQOL in PD patients.

Methods : A detailed search for researches and studies reporting HRQOL in Parkinson’s disease patients was performed using “PubMed”, and included all the available and updated literature. Manual search for books, documents and manuscripts was also conducted on references of papers reporting reviews.

Results : Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are important features of PD and have become the leading cause of poor HRQOL with disease progression. Depressive symptoms, sleep disorders and increased physical disability were significantly related to lower HRQOL among PD patients.

Conclusion : This study identifies a number of significant associated factors that should be considered when dealing with Parkinson’s disease patients. PD patients with depression, sleep disorders and physical disability reported poor HRQOL.


Pharmacotherapy and generic health‐related quality of life in Parkinson's disease

Abstract: Improvement of health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) is one of the primary objectives of symptomatic therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this observational study was to investigate possible changes in generic HRQoL in relation to changed PD pharmacotherapy in the clinical setting.A total of 219 outpatients with mild to moderate PD (median H&Y score = 2.0), treated with oral antiparkinsonian medications, were investigated twice with a 6‐month interval. At baseline, PD medication dose was increased for 82 patients for clinical reasons (median increase of 100 mg levodopa equivalent daily dose or 31.9%), whereas medication remained unchanged for 137 patients. Two generic HRQoL questionnaires, EQ‐5D and 15D, were used at baseline and at 6 months, and the baseline and delta HRQoL values were compared between the treatment groups.In the entire sample, the EQ‐VAS score decreased during the study period, indicating a general decline in HRQoL (P = 0.04). There were no differences in the baseline HRQoL values or delta values between the treatment groups as measured with EQ‐5D or 15D (levodopa dose elevated vs dopamine agonist/MAO‐B inhibitor dose elevated vs no change in medication).An approximately 1/3 increase in antiparkinsonian medication dose did not have an impact on generic HRQoL. Disease‐specific QoL may be more sensitive to pharmacotherapy‐related changes in PD.

Pub.: 10 Nov '15, Pinned: 31 Jul '17

Clinical phenotype of drug-naïve Parkinson's disease based on nonmotor symptoms.

Abstract: Nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are heterogeneous and can result in a variety of symptoms at various disease stages. The objective of the present study was to identify clinically meaningful nonmotor symptoms and to assess the relationship between changes in nonmotor symptoms and cognition and motor symptoms.A total of 159 patients who had drug-naïve PD participated in this study. Nonmotor symptoms (Nonmotor Symptoms Scale), PD status (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale), depression (Geriatric Depression Scale or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire) were assessed. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to establish a nonmotor symptom factor, which was analyzed to evaluate whether the results were associated with the clinical severity measures.Exploratory factor analysis revealed one factor comprised of sleep/fatigue, attention/memory and mood/cognition. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale and the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire Summary Index were independently associated with the sleep/fatigue, attention/memory and mood/cognition domains. The presence of these domains was associated with advanced Parkinson's disease or depressed mood.This study shows that motor impairment and depressed mood in PD are related to sleep/fatigue, attention/memory and mood/cognition. Sleep/fatigue, attention/memory and mood/cognition also had a major impact on health-related quality of life. It is appropriate to identify patients with severe motor symptoms and depressed mood in order to signify the need to consider more detailed care and further assessment.

Pub.: 18 Jul '15, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Relationship between the MDS-UPDRS domains and the health-related quality of life of Parkinson's disease patients.

Abstract: The Movement Disorder Society sponsored version of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is a comprehensive instrument for assessing Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study was aimed at determining the relationships between MDS-UPDRS components and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluations in PD patients.An international, multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out of 435 PD patients assessed with the MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr (HY), Clinical Impression Severity for PD, EQ-5D and PD Questionnaire - eight items (PDQ-8). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis and multiple linear regression models (dependent variables EQ-5D and PDQ-8) were performed.The participants' age was 66.71 ± 10.32 years (51.5% men). PD duration was 8.52 ± 6.14, and median HY was 2 (range 1-5). The correlation between the EQ-5D index and the MDS-UPDRS ranged from -0.46 (Part IV) to -0.72 (Part II) and for the PDQ-8 index from 0.47 (Part III) to 0.74 (Part II). In multiple regression models with the MDS-UPDRS domains as independent variables, the main determinant for both the EQ-5D index and the PDQ-8 was Part II followed by Part I. After factorial grouping of the cardinal PD manifestations embedded in the MDS-UPDRS Parts III and IV for inclusion into multiple regression models, a factor formed by M-EDL, nM-EDL and fluctuations was the main determinant for both the EQ-5D and PDQ-8 indexes.The MDS-UPDRS component most tightly related with the HRQoL measures was a combination of motor and non-motor experiences of daily living.

Pub.: 23 Jan '14, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

The impact of non-motor symptoms on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Parkinson's disease patients from Southwest China.

Abstract: The impact of non-motor symptoms (NMS) on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Chinese population are largely unknown.To study the impact of NMS on the HRQoL in Chinese PD patients.A total of 693 PD patients from Southwest China were included in the study. NMS of patients were evaluated by non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 item version (PDQ-39) was used to evaluate the HRQoL of PD.The mean total score of NMSS was 37.2 ± 33.0 and the most prevalent NMS domain was sleep/fatigue (79.8%). There was a significant strong positive correlation between total NMSS score (rs = 0.71, P < 0.01), sleep/fatigue domain (rs = 0.60, P < 0.01) and PDQ-39 SI. Mood/apathy (rs = 0.55, P < 0.01), attention/memory (rs = 0.42, P < 0.01), gastrointestinal (rs = 0.44, P < 0.01) and Miscellany domains (rs = 0.46, P < 0.01) moderately correlated with PDQ-39 SI. A strong correlation was found between PDQ-39 SI (rs = 0.71, P < 0.01), emotional well-being (rs = 0.62, P < 0.01), cognitions (rs = 0.62, P < 0.01), and the total score of NMSS. Moderate correlation was found between mobility (rs = 0.45, P < 0.01), activities of daily living (rs = 0.43, P < 0.01), stigma (rs = 0.42, P < 0.01), communication (rs = 0.47, P < 0.01), bodily discomfort (rs = 0.46, P < 0.01) and the total score of NMSS. Female, H-Y stage, UPDRS-III and NMSS total score were the potential determinants of worse HRQoL of PD patients.NMS have close association with various aspects of the HRQoL. Severe NMS may be related to dramatic decline of the HRQoL of PD patients.

Pub.: 29 Oct '13, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Personality affects aspects of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease via psychological coping strategies.

Abstract: Personality traits influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Further, an individual's personality traits can influence the strategies they use to cope with a particular stressful situation. However, in PD, the interplay between personality traits, choice of coping strategy, and their subsequent effect on HRQoL remains unclear.The objective of this study was to examine whether personality (neuroticism and extraversion) indirectly affects HRQoL through the use of specific psychological coping strategies.One hundred and forty-six patients with PD completed questionnaires on personality (Big Five Aspects Scale; BFAS), coping (Ways of Coping Questionnaire; WCQ), and mood-specific (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; DASS-21) and disease-specific HRQoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire; PDQ-39).After controlling for gender, age at diagnosis, and age at testing, the emotion-focused coping strategy of escape-avoidance was significantly correlated with neuroticism and certain aspects of HRQoL (cognitive impairment and social support). This suggests that neurotic personality traits may negatively impact on some aspects of HRQoL due to an increased use of escape-avoidance coping strategies. By contrast, planned problem-solving and escape-avoidance coping strategies were both significantly linked to extraversion and interpersonal and mood-related domains of HRQoL. This suggests that extraversion may positively impact on some aspects of HRQoL due to patients adopting greater planned, problem-solving coping strategies, and using fewer escape-avoidance coping mechanisms.Psychological interventions aimed at targeting maladaptive coping strategies, such as the use of escape-avoidance coping, may be effective in minimising the negative impact of neuroticism on HRQoL in PD.

Pub.: 14 Aug '13, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Importance of motor vs. non-motor symptoms for health-related quality of life in early Parkinson's disease.

Abstract: The relative impact of motor- and non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life in early Parkinson's disease is poorly documented.188 patients with incident Parkinson's disease from a population-based study were examined at the time of diagnosis, before initiation of dopaminergic treatment, with follow-up of 166 patients three years later. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Motor and non-motor variables were derived from the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and other established scales.Multiple regression analyses showed that the non-motor symptoms strongest associated with reduced SF-36 scores at diagnosis and three years later were depression, fatigue and sensory complaints. The motor symptoms most related to impaired SF-36 scores were problems with gait and activities of daily living that cover personal needs. The variance of SF-36 mental summary scores was much better explained by non-motor vs. motor symptoms, both at baseline (R(2) = 0.384 vs. 0.095) and 3 years later (R(2) = 0.441 vs. 0.195). Also SF-36 physical summary scores were better explained by non-motor vs. motor symptoms with R(2) = 0.372 vs. 0.322 at baseline and R(2) = 0.468 vs. 0.315 after 3 years.In early PD, including the phase before dopaminergic treatment is initiated, non-motor symptoms are more important for reduced health-related quality of life than motor symptoms. Fatigue, depression, sensory complaints and gait disturbances emerge as the most relevant symptoms and should be given corresponding attention in the management of patients with early PD.

Pub.: 07 Aug '13, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Self-rated health mediates the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

Abstract: To explore whether self-rated health acts as a potential mediator in the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.Older persons (as most patients with Parkinson's disease are) who reported poor self-rated health compared with those with excellent self-rated health were two-and-a-half times more likely to have experienced a decline in functional ability.Cross-sectional.Socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients (n = 176) were obtained during a structured interview and from medical records. Functional status was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (total score), self-rated health with the first item of the Short-Form 36-item Health Survey Questionnaire and health-related quality of life with the disease-specific questionnaire called the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire-39. Multiple linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were employed to assess mediation.Self-rated health seems to have a mediating effect on the association between functional status and health-related quality of life. The Sobel test confirmed an indirect effect of functional status via self-rated health on health-related quality of life and showed a statistically significant indirect effect of functional status on health-related quality of life via self-rated health against the direct route without the mediator.Self-rated health partially mediates the deteriorating effect of functional status on health-related quality of life.Supportive and adaptation psychosocial intervention programmes leading to restored self-rated health may enhance the quality of life regardless of disability in Parkinson's disease.

Pub.: 21 Dec '13, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

The Key Determinants to Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients: Results from the Parkinson's Disease Biomarker Program (PDBP).

Abstract: The impact of motor- and non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received increasing attention.To address this, the study explored a large cohort of patients enrolled in the PD Biomarker Program.The PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) measured HRQOL, whereas the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) assessed motor and non-motor symptoms. Determinants of HRQOL in PD patients were identified by stepwise linear regression analysis. The relationship between the PDQ-39 and UPDRS subscale scores then was explored through structural equation modeling.The mean disease duration was 6.8 years and the mean PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39SI) was 18.4. UPDRS-I (non-motor function) and UPDRS-II (motor questionnaire) scores demonstrated the strongest correlations with PDQ-39SI (r Ϡ 0.4, P < 0.05), whereas UPDRS-III (motor exam) and UPDRS-IV (motor complications) scores were correlated moderately with PDQ-39SI (0.3 < r < 0.4, P < 0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses showed that age (β= -0.13, P < 0.001), education (β= -0.07, P = 0.008), UPDRS-I (β= 0.32, P = 0.000), and UPDRS-II (β= 0.44, P < 0.001) significantly contributed to HRQOL, and cumulatively accounted for 69.1% of the PDQ-39SI variance. UPDRS-II score was the primary predictor of PDQ-39SI, accounting for 57.3% of the variance, whereas UPDRS-I score accounted for 7.5%. UPDRS-III and -IV and other factors measured did not survive step regression. Structural equation modeling confirmed the association of UPDRS-II (β= 0.67, P < 0.001) and UPDRS-I (β= 0.35, P < 0.001) with the PDQ-39SI.Both motor and non-motor function scores impacted significantly HRQOL in PD. UPDRS-III, however, has limited contributions to HRQOL although it is used as a main outcome in many clinical trials.

Pub.: 04 Jun '16, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Sleeping difficulties and health‐related quality of life in Parkinson's disease

Abstract: Various sleep‐related symptoms occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Their occurrence with health‐related quality of life (HRQL), comorbid sleep disorders, and other comorbidities was studied.Altogether, 1447 randomly selected patients with Parkinson's disease, aged 43–89 years, participated in a questionnaire study. A structured questionnaire with 207 items was based on the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Questions on demographics, PD, sleep disorders, and comorbidities were included.The response rate was 59.0%, and of these, 80% had answered to all questions that were used in the analyses (N=684). Occurrence of long sleep was found in 26.2% of the subjects, short sleep in 32.5%, poor sleep in 21.2%, sleep deprivation in 33.8%, disrupted sleep in 47.4%, and difficulties to fall asleep in 12.2%, respectively. Poor self‐rated health and poor quality of life occurred in 44.4% and in 43.3% of all participants. In the logistic regression, age and gender differentially predicted long sleep and sleep deprivation, such that older age and being male were positively associated with long sleep but negatively associated with the report of sleep deprivation. Depression, subjective negative stress, and fatigue occurred with long sleep. On the other hand, poor sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness occurred with short sleep and sleep deprivation.The sleep difficulties in PD are frequent. The long sleeping patients have depression, stress, and fatigue.

Pub.: 10 Jun '16, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study focusing on non-motor symptoms.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Estonian persons with Parkinson's disease (PD).268 persons with PD were evaluated using: the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS); the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY); the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale (SE-ADL); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Additional questions on clinical and socio-demographic variables were asked during a semi-structured interview. Predictors of HRQoL were tested using multiple regression analysis.The main predictors of low HRQoL were depression and motor and non-motor aspects of daily living. 59.9 % of the variation in the PDQ-39 summary index (SI) score was explained by the predictive variables identified in this study. None of the socio-demographic variables (age, gender, urban/rural living, marital status, living alone/with others, education level) were significant predictors of HRQoL. Prevalence of non-motor Parkinson's symptoms were high (99.6 %); cognitive impairment, sleep and urinary problems were the most common. All non-motor symptoms correlated significantly with low HRQoL, except the features of impulse control disorders (ICDs).Depression and motor and non-motor daily living experiences were found to be significant and independent factors of low HRQoL in persons with PD. Depression was the strongest determinant of low HRQoL. Our results highlight the importance of recognition and management of non-motor symptoms, as these features had more impact on patients' HRQoL than clinically assessed motor symptoms.

Pub.: 20 Jun '15, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

Stigma as a key determinant of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

Abstract: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) may experience stigma due to their visible features of movement and communication difficulties. This paper aimed to examine the role of experienced stigma in health-related quality of life (QOL), after controlling for personal and clinical characteristics.This is a preliminary analysis of a subset of baseline data from the Social Self-Management of Parkinson's Disease Study (SocM-PD), an ongoing 3-year prospective cohort study. Seventy-three people with PD (M age = 65.72, 29 women) participated in this study. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine the role of stigma in QOL, after controlling for gender, disease severity, depression, and motor difficulties of daily living.Significant correlations were found between QOL with gender (r = .26), disease severity (r = .38), depression (r = .65), motor difficulties of daily living (r = .71), and stigma (r = .83). After controlling for the significant covariates, stigma made a significant and unique contribution to the explanation of QOL by 13.7 % (p < 0.001). A final hierarchical multiple regression with stigma and the 4 covariates revealed an overall model that explained 77.8 % of the total variance of QOL (F [5, 63] = 48.79, p < 0.001).Experienced stigma appears to be a key determinant of QOL in people with PD. The results suggest the importance of further understanding stigma in PD to develop possible intervention strategies. Future work is also needed to verify the results with a larger and longitudinal dataset of the SocM-PD.

Pub.: 05 Jun '16, Pinned: 30 Jul '17

A comprehensive model of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

Abstract: Insight in how impairments and disabilities related to Parkinson's disease (PD) influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is required to review adequacy of current management strategies.The Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease (SCOPA) evaluation was used to assess impairments and disabilities. HRQoL was assessed with the EuroQol-5D Visual Analogue Scale. 378 patients with PD who participated in the SCOPA/PROPARK cohort were assessed while on their usual treatment. Multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation modelling were used to construct a model of factors that influence HRQoL.A model with good fit was constructed that identified various impairments and disabilities as important contributors to HRQoL in PD. Of the disabilities, psychosocial well-being had a larger impact on HRQoL than physical functioning. Of the impairments, depression had the largest contribution to HRQoL, followed by axial motor symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and urinary symptoms. In addition, pain, psychiatric and motor complications, and daytime sleepiness had small but significant influences on HRQoL.Multiple factors, including disabilities, nonmotor symptoms and axial motor symptoms, affect HRQoL in patients with PD. In patients who are on symptomatic treatment aiming to alleviate mainly motor symptoms, there is a large impact on HRQoL of nonmotor and nondopaminergic symptoms. Research is warranted to develop and evaluate management strategies for the aspects that currently impact on HRQoL as psychosocial well-being, depressive symptoms, axial motor symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and urinary symptoms. These findings call for a multidisciplinary approach in the care of these features.

Pub.: 30 Sep '08, Pinned: 29 Jul '17

Which measures of physical function and motor impairment best predict quality of life in Parkinson's disease?

Abstract: Our objective was to compare the relative value of elements of the motor system in predicting the physical mobility domain of health related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease in order to specify targets for intervention.In this cross-sectional study, the Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 was administered to 263 subjects with Parkinson's disease to assess health related quality of life. Demographics, motor impairments and physical function were assessed using the Unified Parkinson disease rating scale, 10-m walk test, 6-min walk test, Freezing of gait questionnaire, Timed up & go, functional gait assessment, Berg balance test, functional reach and 9-hole peg test.The results revealed that demographic factors accounted for 19.7% of the variance in Parkinson disease questionnaire-39 mobility score. When motor impairments were added to the model, the bradykinesia composite score contributed a significant portion of the variance (R(2) change = 0.12, p < 0.001). The tremor and rigidity composite scores did not contribute significantly. The Freezing of gait questionnaire was the strongest predictor (R(2) change = 0.23, p < 0.001) of the physical function tests followed by Functional gait assessment (R(2) change = 0.06, p < 0.001) and 6-min walk test (R(2) change = 0.01, p = 0.01). Collectively, 61% of the variance in Parkinson disease questionnaire-39 mobility score and 41.5% of the Parkinson disease questionnaire-39(total) score was accounted for.These results suggest greater value of physical function tests, and not tests of motor impairments, in predicting health related quality of life.

Pub.: 09 Aug '11, Pinned: 29 Jul '17

Parkinson's disease patients' subjective descriptions of characteristics of chronic pain, sleeping patterns and health-related quality of life.

Abstract: Nonmotor symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is negatively affected by different factors, of which pain and sleep disturbances are important contributors. This study was performed to evaluate and describe subjective experiences of pain, sleeping patterns, and HRQoL in a cohort of PD patients with chronic pain.A total of 45 participants with established PD for more than 2 years, and PD-related pain for the preceding three months, were recruited from three sites in Sweden. Data regarding time point for onset, duration and degree of pain parameters, body localization of pain, external influences, and treatments were obtained. HRQoL was evaluated with the Short Form-36(®) Health Survey, and sleeping patterns were registered with the Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale, both completed along with a questionnaire.In one-third of participants, pain preceded the PD diagnosis. Median pain score measured with a visual analog scale was 6.6 and 5.9 (for females and males, respectively) the week before the study. In almost half of the participants, pain was present during all their waking hours. Significantly more females described their pain as troublesome, while more males described their pain as irritating. Feelings of numbness and creeping sensations at night were strongly associated with the maximal visual analog scale scores. Polypharmacy was common; 89% used medication for anxiety/insomnia, and 18% used antidepressants. Only one-third of patients who reported pain relief with analgesics had these prescribed on their drug lists. Sleep was characterized by frequent awakenings. Urinary urgency and restless legs were frequently reported as troublesome. Patients rated HRQoL as significantly worse in all items compared with a healthy reference population matched for age and sex.Experiences of chronic PD-related pain are complex; there is substantial sleep fragmentation and negative impact on HRQoL.

Pub.: 24 Oct '12, Pinned: 29 Jul '17