Senior Research Officer, Kenya Medical Research Institute
In Kenya in 2012, there were 2454 cases of cervical cancer cases, 1676 cancer deaths and a cervical cancer screening coverage rate of 3.2% among women aged 18-69 years. The Kenyan guidelines recommend cervical cancer screening for all HIV infected women of reproductive age (WRA) using VIA/VILLI biannually in the first year and then annually for life. . However, reports from women of reproductive age in clinics in Western Kenya (AMPATH) and at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and referral hospital in 2014 showed self-reported screening rates among WRA seeking health services at different clinics that ranged from 14% to 17.5%. We therefore propose to provide health worker education and introduce a health worker reminder system to promote screening of HIV infected women for cervical cancer.
Abstract: Cervical Cancer (CC) is the number one cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although CC is preventable, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening.This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) among 112 HIV positive and 161 negative women aged 18-69 years.The presence of cervical lesions was greater among HIV positive (22.9%) than HIV negative women (5.7%; p < 0.0001). In logistic models, the risk of cervical lesions among HIV positive women was 5.24 times higher when adjusted by age (OR 5.24, CI 2.31-11.88), and 4.06 times higher in a full model (OR 4.06, CI 1.61-10.25), than among HIV negative women. In the age-adjusted model women who had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners were 3 times more likely (OR 3.00, CI 1.02-8.85) to have cervical lesions compared to women with one lifetime partner and the odds of cervical lesions among women with a history of STIs were 2.16 greater (OR 2.16, CI 1.04-4.50) than among women with no previous STI. In the fully adjusted model women who had a previous cervical exam were 2.5 times more likely (OR 2.53, CI 1.06-6.05) to have cervical lesions than women who had not.The high prevalence of HIV infection and the strong association between HIV and cervical lesions highlight the need for substantial scale-up of cervical screening to decrease the rate of CC in Swaziland.
Pub.: 23 Feb '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: We suggested cervical cancer screening strategies for women living with HIV (WLHIV) by comparing their precancer risks to general population women, and then compared our suggestions to current CDC guidelines.We compared risks of biopsy-confirmed cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (bHSIL+), calculated among WLHIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, to "risk benchmarks" for specific management strategies in the general population.We applied parametric survival models among 2,423 WLHIV with negative or ASC-US cytology during 2000-2015. Separately, we synthesized published general population bHSIL+ risks to generate 3-year risk benchmarks for a 3-year return (after negative cytology, i.e., "re-screening threshold"), 6-12-month return (ASC-US), and immediate colposcopy (LSIL).Average 3-year bHSIL+ risks among general population women ("risk benchmarks") were 0.69% for a 3-year return (after negative cytology), 8.8% for a 6-12-month return (after ASC-US), and 14.4% for colposcopy (after LSIL). Most CDC guidelines for WLHIV were supported by comparing risks in WLHIV to these benchmarks, including: a 3-year return after three negative cytology tests or a negative cytology/oncHPV co-test with CD4≥500 (all 3y-risks≤1.3%); a 1-year return after negative cytology with either positive oncHPV co-test (1y-risk = 1.0%) or CD4<500 (1y-risk = 1.1%); and a 6-12-month return after ASC-US (3y-risk = 8.2% if CD4≥500; 10.4% if CD4 = 350-499). Other suggestions differed modestly from current guidelines, including colposcopy (vs. 6-12mo return) for WLHIV with ASC-US and CD4<350 (3y-risk = 16.4%) and a lengthened 2-year (vs. 1-year) interval for WLHIV with CD4≥500 after negative cytology (2y-risk = 0.98%).Current cervical cancer screening guidelines for WLHIV are largely appropriate. CD4 count may inform risk-tailored strategies.
Pub.: 23 Mar '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: To identify barriers to cervical cancer screening and treatment, and determine acceptance toward peer navigators (PNs) to reduce barriers.A cross-sectional study was conducted among women with HIV infection aged 19 years or older attending HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between May and August 2012. Data for sociodemographic characteristics, barriers, knowledge and attitude toward cervical cancer screening and treatment, and PNs were collected by questionnaire.Among 399 participants, only 36 (9.0%) reported previous cervical cancer screening. A higher percentage of screened than unscreened women reported being told about screening by someone at the clinic (25/36 [69.4%] vs 132/363 [36.4%]; P=0.002), knew that screening was free (30/36 [83.3%] vs 161/363 [44.4%]; P<0.001), and obtained "good" cervical screening attitude scores (17/36 [47.2%] vs 66/363 [18.2%]; P=0.001). Most women (382/399 [95.7%]) did not know about PNs. When told about PNs, 388 (97.5%) of 398 women said they would like assistance with explanation of medical terms, and 352 (88.2%) of 399 said they would like PNs to accompany them for cervical evaluation and/or treatment.Use of PNs was highly acceptable and represents a novel approach to addressing barriers to cervical cancer screening and treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 10 Apr '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: To report the results of a pilot study for a service for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in north-western Tanzania.The pilot study was launched in 2012 after a community-level information campaign. Women aged 15-64 years were encouraged to attend the district health centres. Attendees were offered a conventional Pap smear and a visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA).The first 2500 women were evaluated. A total of 164 women (detection rate 70.0/1000) were diagnosed with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer. The performance of VIA was comparable to that of Pap smear. The district of residence, a history of untreated sexually transmitted disease, an HIV-negative status (inverse association), and parity were independently associated with the detected prevalence of disease. The probability of invasive versus preinvasive disease was lower in HIV-positive women and in women practicing breast self-examination.The diagnostic procedure had an acceptable level of quality. Factors associated with the detected prevalence of disease will allow for a more targeted promotion of the service. Cervical screening should be coordinated with sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection control activities.
Pub.: 21 Apr '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Data on invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence in HIV-positive women and the effect of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We estimated i) ICC incidence rates in women (≥18 years) who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the Themba Lethu Clinic (TLC) in Johannesburg, South Africa, between 2004-2011; and ii) the effect of a Pap-based screening program. We included 10,640 women; median age at ART initiation: 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 30-42), median CD4 count at ART initiation: 113 cells/µl (IQR 46-184). During 27,257 person-years (pys), 138 women were diagnosed with ICC; overall incidence rate: 506/100,000 pys (95% CI 428-598). The ICC incidence rate was highest (615/100,000 pys) in women who initiated ART before cervical cancer screening became available in 04/2005, and was lowest (260/100,000 pys) in women who initiated ART from 01/2009 onwards when the cervical cancer screening program and access to treatment of cervical lesions was expanded (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20-0.87). Advanced HIV/AIDS stage (4 versus 1, aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.24) and middle age at ART initiation (36-45 versus 18-25 years, aHR 2.51, 95% CI 1.07-5.88) were risk factors for ICC. The ICC incidence rate substantially decreased with the implementation of a Pap-based screening program and improved access to treatment of cervical lesions. However, the risk of developing ICC after ART initiation remained high. To inform and improve ICC prevention and care for HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa, implementation and monitoring of cervical cancer screening programs are essential. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 26 Apr '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where Nigeria is located, is amongst the highest in the world; it is estimated that 70,722 new cases of invasive cervical cancer occur annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunosuppression, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a predisposing factor for persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) and the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions. Four hundred and fifty women who attended the HIV clinic at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly selected. They were given self-administered questionnaires which sought to determine their awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. The media 23% (n = 103) was the most common source of information amongst respondents who had heard about cervical cancer. For all the women surveyed, the average percentage knowledge was 9.95%. Having attitude scores greater than or equal to the mean attitude score of 55.16% was regarded as having a positive attitude while a score lower than that was regarded as negative attitude. About 43.5% (n = 195) respondents had a positive attitude towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. Cervical cancer awareness and knowledge amongst women attending the HIV clinic in the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were very poor. Their attitude towards cervical cancer screening practices and prevention was also very poor.
Pub.: 10 May '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Background: There is evidence of an interaction between HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) resulting in increased HPV-associated morbidity and cancer mortality among HIV-positive women. This study aims to determine how the natural history of cervical HPV infection differs by HIV status.Methods: A total of 1,320 women (47% were positive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2) were followed for an average of two years in Senegal, West Africa between 1994 and 2010. Cytology (with a sub-sample of histology) and HPV DNA testing were performed at approximately 4-month intervals yielding data from over 7,900 clinic visits. Competing risk modeling was used to estimate rates for transitioning between three clinically relevant natural history stages: Normal, HPV, and HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). Among HIV-positive women, exploratory univariate analyses were conducted examining the impact of HPV type, infection with multiple HPV types, HIV type, CD4(+) count, and age.Results: HIV-positive women had higher rates of progression and lower rates of regression compared with HIV-negative women (i.e., adverse transitions). HIV-positive women had a 2.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.69-3.86; P < 0.0001] times higher rate of progression from HPV to HSIL than HIV-negative women (with 24-month absolute risks of 0.18 and 0.07, respectively). Among HIV-positive women, HPV-16/18 infection and CD4(+) count <200/mm(3) were associated with adverse transitions.Conclusions: Adverse HIV effects persist throughout HPV natural history stages.Impact: In the limited-resource setting of sub-Saharan Africa where cervical cancer screening is not widely available, the high-risk population of HIV-positive women may be ideal for targeted screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 1-9. ©2017 AACR.
Pub.: 19 May '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: This article shows the consequences of competing global health agendas within differential clinical and social worlds. Specifically, it examines how HIV's prominence in local clinical programming in Swaziland influences cervical cancer screening rates. Drawing on 2014 ethnographic research conducted in a semi-urban town in Swaziland, the interview and participant observation data show the relative scarcity of cervical cancer care and the consequences of HIV/AIDS funding and programming dominance. 20 women and 7 health workers were interviewed in homes, clinics and small businesses. Data were analysed using frameworks of medicoscapes and therapeutic citizenship. Results show that women's patterns of screening avoidance were based on lengthy diagnostic procedures, treatment expense, therapeutic travel to neighbouring South Africa, and frequent therapeutic failure. In sum, avoidance of cervical screening in Swaziland has structural components, and is a product of organisational and political choices at local and global levels. This study challenges culturalist assumptions about African women's avoidance of cervical cancer screening. In the future, delivering successful cervical cancer screening in Swaziland will depend on expanding cancer screening and treatment, which should be informed by perceptions of clinical care held by the very women public health practitioners aim to keep healthy.
Pub.: 21 Jun '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa-in large part because of inadequate coverage of screening and preventive treatment services. A number of programs have begun integrating cervical cancer prevention services into existing family planning or HIV/AIDS service delivery platforms, to rapidly expand "screen and treat" programs and mitigate cervical cancer burden. Drawing upon a review of literature and our experiences, we consider benefits and challenges associated with such programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We then outline steps that can optimize uptake and sustainability of integrated sexual and reproductive health services. These include increasing coordination among implementing organizations for efficient use of resources; task shifting for services that can be provided by nonphysicians; mobilizing communities via trusted frontline health workers; strengthening management information systems to allow for monitoring of multiple services; and prioritizing an operational research agenda to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness and benefits of integrated service delivery.
Pub.: 12 Jul '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: This study evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in HIV treatment clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.A Markov model was used to project health outcomes and costs of cervical cancer screening and cryotherapy at an HIV clinic in Kenya using cryotherapy without screening, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Papanicolaou smear (Pap), and testing for human papillomavirus (HPV). Direct and indirect medical and non-medical costs were examined from societal and clinic perspectives.Costs of cryotherapy, VIA, Pap, and HPV for women with CD4 200-500 cells/mL were $99, $196, $219, and $223 from a societal perspective and $19, $94, $124, and $113 from a clinic perspective, with 17.3, 17.1, 17.1, and 17.1 years of life expectancy, respectively. Women at higher CD4 counts (>500 cells/mL) given cryotherapy VIA, Pap, and HPV resulted in better life expectancies (19.9+ years) and lower cost (societal: $49, $99, $115, and $102; clinic: $13, $51, $71, and $56). VIA was less expensive than HPV unless HPV screening could be reduced to a single visit.Preventative cryotherapy was the least expensive strategy and resulted in highest projected life expectancy, while VIA was most cost-effective unless HPV could be reduced to a single visit.
Pub.: 21 Jul '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem. Even though readily preventable, it is the fourth leading cause of death in women globally. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer, highlighting the need for access to screening and treatment for this population. Integration of services has been proposed as an effective way of improving access to cervical cancer screening especially in areas of high HIV prevalence as well as lower resourced settings. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of programs integrating cervical cancer and HIV services globally, including feasibility, acceptability, clinical outcomes and facilitators for service delivery.This is part of a larger systematic review on integration of services for HIV and non-communicable diseases. To be considered for inclusion studies had to report on programs to integrate cervical cancer and HIV services at the level of service delivery. We searched multiple databases including Global Health, Medline and Embase from inception until December 2015. Articles were screened independently by two reviewers for inclusion and data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias.11,057 records were identified initially. 7,616 articles were screened by title and abstract for inclusion. A total of 21 papers reporting interventions integrating cervical cancer care and HIV services met the criteria for inclusion. All but one study described integration of cervical cancer screening services into existing HIV services. Most programs also offered treatment of minor lesions, a 'screen-and-treat' approach, with some also offering treatment of larger lesions within the same visit. Three distinct models of integration were identified. One model described integration within the same clinic through training of existing staff. Another model described integration through co-location of services, with the third model describing programs of integration through complex coordination across the care pathway. The studies suggested that integration of cervical cancer services with HIV services using all models was feasible and acceptable to patients. However, several barriers were reported, including high loss to follow up for further treatment, limited human-resources, and logistical and chain management support. Using visual screening methods can facilitate screening and treatment of minor to larger lesions in a single 'screen-and-treat' visit. Complex integration in a single-visit was shown to reduce loss to follow up. The use of existing health infrastructure and funding together with comprehensive staff training and supervision, community engagement and digital technology were some of the many other facilitators for integration reported across models.This review shows that integration of cervical cancer screening and treatment with HIV services using different models of service delivery is feasible as well as acceptable to women living with HIV. However, the descriptive nature of most papers and lack of data on the effect on long-term outcomes for HIV or cervical cancer limits the inference on the effectiveness of the integrated programs. There is a need for strengthening of health systems across the care continuum and for high quality studies evaluating the effect of integration on HIV as well as on cervical cancer outcomes.
Pub.: 22 Jul '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Because of antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV infection are surviving longer and are at higher risk for chronic diseases. This study's objective was to assess the magnitude of deaths due to cancers for which there are screening recommendations for people living with HIV in Florida.Florida Department of Health Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System data were matched with Department of Health Vital Records and the National Death Index to identify deaths and their causes through 2014. The sex-specific and cause-specific mortality rates and indirect standardized mortality ratios (SMRs, using U.S. mortality rates as a standard) were calculated during 2016 for people reported with HIV infection 2000-2014.Despite the competing risk of HIV mortality, among the 25,678 females, there was a higher risk of cervical (SMR=6.32, 95% CI=4.63, 8.44), colorectal (SMR=2.05, 95% CI=1.44, 2.83), liver (SMR=8.96, 95% CI=5.39, 14.03), and lung (SMR=5.82, 95% CI=4.80, 6.96) cancer mortality and lower risk of breast cancer mortality (SMR=0.57, 95% CI=0.42, 0.76). Among 63,493 males, there was a higher risk of liver (SMR=5.50, 95% CI=4.47, 6.70) and lung (4.63, 95% CI=4.11, 5.19) cancer mortality. Among males, the lung cancer SMR significantly declined 2000-2014 (p<0.05), but was still high in 2012-2014 (SMR=3.59, 95% CI=2.87, 4.43).These results indicate the importance of primary and secondary cancer prevention during primary care for people living with HIV infection.
Pub.: 29 Jul '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality. In line with 2030 Sustainable Development Goals to reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases, increased efforts need to focus on high burden countries within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite limitations of resources in SSA, opportunities exist to improve cancer control. This article reviews advancements in cervical cancer control in HIV-positive women.
Pub.: 19 Aug '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small double-stranded DNA virus that commonly infects humans. The oncogenic characteristics of HPV derive from the oncoproteins E6 and E7 that act inhibiting p53 and pRB tumor suppressors. About 5% of all cancers worldwide are attributable mainly to those known as high-risk, including HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. Infection with HPV is common after sexual initiation, but the majority of HPV infections do not cause symptoms or disease and are cleared within 12-24 months post-infection. Only a small fraction of those infections that persist or progress to a preneoplastic lesion result in cancer. Persistence of HPV infection is needed to start the oncogenic process. Clearance of infection is common in young adults. Viral load and viral type are the main cofactors for progression from infection to cervical intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Smoking, hormonal exposure, and HIV are additional exposures that increase the risk of progression to cancer. The adverse health effects of HPV infections can be largely controlled through vaccination and screening.
Pub.: 02 Oct '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Despite the wide-spread availability of cervical cancer prevention and screening programs in developed countries, the morbidity and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Zimbabwe are still very high. Limited resources as well as the high HIV prevalence are contributors to the high burden of cervical cancer. This paper aims to analyse the policies, frameworks and current practices in the management of cervical cancer in Zimbabwe.A review of national documents and published literature on cervical cancer prevention, screening, treatment and knowledge in Zimbabwe was done. Informal interviews were conducted to assess the practices of cervical cancer management.Through strategic collaboration, a pilot for the HPV vaccination program is underway. The VIAC national cervical cancer screening program is being adopted into the current healthcare system. With regards to the treatment of precancerous lesions we found that the "see and treat" program has been implemented in colposcopy clinics. In addition, there are two multidisciplinary cancer treatment clinics installed in two central public hospitals. The general knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer is poor in Zimbabwe.Limitations in resources, infrastructure, manpower, delays in treatment and patient knowledge play a role in the high morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer in Zimbabwe. The Ministry of Health needs to increase funding to expedite the availability of HPV vaccine and screening programs. Community engagement initiatives to raise awareness on cervical cancer should be established to provide education on how to prevent the development of cervical cancer, as well as promote screening for early detection.
Pub.: 06 Oct '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men. Expert commentary: HPV-related cancer incidence has not declined (e.g., cervical cancer) and has even increased (e.g., anal cancer) in the ART era, demanding an effective HPV prevention strategy. HPV vaccination should be introduced into national prevention programs worldwide immediately because current prophylactic vaccines are safe, tolerable, and immunogenic in PLWH. HPV vaccine efficacy trials in PLWH are essential to determine the most appropriate immunization schedule. The population most at risk of anal cancer is HIV-positive men who have sex with men, who are not protected by herd immunity if only the female population is vaccinated. Unvaccinated PLWH need enhanced surveillance for early detection of HPV-related cancers and their precursors.
Pub.: 14 Oct '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at high risk of cervical cancer.This study assessed uptake and correlates of cervical screening among HIV-infected women in care in Uganda.A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected women in care was conducted from August to November 2016. Structured interviews were conducted with 5198 women aged 15-49 years, from 245 HIV clinics. Knowledge and uptake of cervical screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination were determined. Correlates of cervical screening were assessed with modified Poisson regression to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) using Stata version 12.0.Overall, 94.0% (n = 4858) had ever heard of cervical screening and 66% (n = 3732) knew a screening site. However, 47.4% (n = 2302) did not know the schedule for screening and 50% (n = 2409) did not know the symptoms of cervical cancer. One-third (33.7%; n = 1719) rated their risk of cervical cancer as low. Uptake of screening was 30.3% (n = 1561). Women who had never been screened cited lack of information (29.6%; n = 1059) and no time (25.5%; n = 913) as the main reasons. Increased likelihood of screening was associated with receipt of HIV care at a level II health center [adj. PR 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.76] and private facilities (adj. PR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-3.21), knowledge of cervical screening (adj. PR 2.19, 95% CI 1.78-2.70), where to go for screening (adj. PR 6.47, 95% CI 3.69-11.36), and low perception of risk (adj. PR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14-2.03). HPV vaccination was 2%.Cervical screening and HPV vaccination uptake were very low among HIV-infected women in care in Uganda. Improved knowledge of cervical screening schedules and sites, and addressing fears and risk perception may increase uptake of cervical screening in this vulnerable population.
Pub.: 17 Oct '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Women living with HIV are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which can lead to cervical cancer. New guidelines recommend indefinite screening. The objective of this study is to describe cervical cancer screening practices and colposcopy results in a cohort of women living with HIV over age of 65 who were followed before the new guidelines. Comorbidities, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other risk factors were evaluated.We conducted a retrospective chart review on 75 women aged 65 or older living with HIV with at least one Pap smear.The mean age of the cohort was 66.5 and at HIV diagnosis was 56. The majority of women were immunocompetent. 80% had serial Pap smears. Of these, 86% of 238 were negative or ASCUS. No women progressed to HSIL. 92% of colposcopies had negative or CIN I results. Three women were treated successfully for high-grade dysplasia. More than half of women had other STIs. 72% were screened for HPV; 50% were positive.The majority of women had negative and low-grade Pap smears. Questions remain regarding the utility of continued Pap screening and the added value of HPV testing in this unique population of older women living with HIV.
Pub.: 28 Oct '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS defining malignancies, especially in men who have sex with men and women living with HIV (WLHIV).To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL]) and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes (HR-HPV) in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection.Prospective-longitudinal study (May 2012-December 2016). At baseline (V1) and follow up visits, anal mucosa samples were taken in liquid medium for cytology and HPV PCR. In cases of abnormal anal cytology and/or positive HR-HPV PCR results, a high resolution anoscopy was performed. Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist.Ninety five women with an average age of 43.7years were included. At baseline, 11.6% had cervical abnormalities (4.1% CIN1, 2.2% CIN2/3, 1.1% cervical cancer), 64.3% anal abnormalities (50% LSIL/AIN1, 9.5% HSIL/AIN2/3 and 2.4% anal cancer) and 49.4% had HR-HPV genotypes. During 36months of follow up, the incidence of anal HSIL was 16×1,000 person-years; 14.8% acquired HR-HPV genotypes and 51.2% cleared them, P=.007. No patients presented CIN1/2/3/ or cervical cancer. In the multivariate analysis we found the following predictive factors for HR-HPV infection: smoking (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.99-2.42), number of sexual partners >3 (RR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.62), cervical and anal dysplasia (RR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.67) and (RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.021-2.35), respectively.Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Therefore, screening for these lesions should perhaps be offered to all WLHIV.
Pub.: 07 Dec '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Early cervical cancer screening has been shown to be beneficial in reducing cervical cancer related deaths. Despite the benefits of early cervical cancer screening, uptake remains limited, with wide disparities in access and uptake in most developing countries. As part of a larger study, this paper uses a socio-ecological framework to explain the determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and screening among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Kenya. We conducted a multilevel analysis of cervical cancer knowledge (n = 11,138) and screening (n = 10,333) using the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Results show regional disparities in cancer knowledge and the utilization of cervical cancer screening services; regions with high wealth inequality (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.56-0.87]) emerged as vulnerable regions where women were less likely to screen for cervical cancer. Gender equity, health insurance coverage and education level significantly predicted cervical cancer screening rates. Results further revealed regional as well as rural-urban wealth inequalities in cervical cancer screening. We argue that given that Kenyan women are highly exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) due to the legacy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the country, cervical cancer may be the next epidemic if integrated measures are not adopted to increase cervical cancer knowledge and overcome the barriers to utilizing early screening services. The paper concludes with policy recommendations and directions for future research.
Pub.: 19 Dec '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: In Ethiopia, cervical cancer is ranked as the second most common type of cancer in women and it is about 8 times more common in HIV infected women. However, data on knowledge of HIV infected women regarding cervical cancer and acceptability of screening is scarce in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study was aimed at assessing the level of knowledge of about cervical cancer and uptake of screening among HIV infected women in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia.A cross sectional, questionnaire based survey was conducted on 302 HIV infected women attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from March 1 to 30, 2017. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were also performed to examine factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening service.Overall, only 64 (21.2%) of respondent were knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening and only 71 (23.5%) of respondents were ever screened in their life time. Age between 21 and 29 years old (AOR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.71–7.29), perceived susceptibility to develop cervical cancer (AOR =2.85, 95% CI = 1.89–6.16) and comprehensive knowledge of cervical cancer (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 2.31–7.15) were found to be strong predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake.The knowledge and uptake of cervical cancer screening among HIV infected women was found to be very poor. Taking into consideration the heightened importance of comprehensive knowledge in boosting up the number of participants towards cervical cancer screening services, different stakeholders working on cancer and HIV/AIDS should provide a customized health promotion intervention and awareness creation to HIV-infected women, along with improving accessibility of cervical cancer screening services in rural areas.
Pub.: 19 Dec '17, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
Abstract: Cancer incidence rates are presented for the Nairobi Cancer Registry, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) covering the population of the capital city of Kenya (3.2 million inhabitants in 2009). Case finding was by active methods, with standard and checks for accuracy and validity. During the period 2004-2008 a total of 8,982 cases were registered comprising 3,889 men (an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 161 per 100,000) and 5,093 women (ASR 231 per 1,00,000). Prostate cancer was the most common cancer in men (ASR 40.6 per 100,000) while breast cancer was the most common among women (ASR 51.7 per 100,000). Cervical cancer ranked the second most common cancer among women in Nairobi with an ASR of 46.1 per 100,000, somewhat lower than those of other registries in East Africa region. Breast and cervical cancers accounted for 44% of all cancers in women. Cancer of the oesophagus was common in both sexes, with a slight excess of cases in men (sex ratio 1.3). Unlike other regions in East Africa, the rate of Kaposi sarcoma was relatively low during the period (men 3.6/100,000; women 2.0/100,000). Although incidence rates cannot be calculated for the early years of the registry, the increase in relative frequency of prostate cancer and declines in frequency of Kaposi sarcoma may indicate underlying trends in the risk of these cancers.
Pub.: 04 Jul '15, Pinned: 09 Jan '18
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