A pinboard by
Fathy Eldesoky

Nitration, and Chlorination of Aromatic, and Heterocyclic Compounds, using Tetrachlorosilane

The development of a new silane reagent derived from tetrachlorosilane (TCS) was applied in the present work. TCS-sodium nitrate (NaNO3) binary reagent and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) were reported here as a homogeneous nitrating system. The later was used for the efficient mono nitration, in most cases, with high para-regioselectivity. The nitration proceeded smoothly under mild condition, fairly clean and in good yields. This readily available and inexpensive system is superior to other methods by avoidance of the use of corrosive nitrating reagents and therefore considered to be convenient in terms of risk reduction, economic advantages and environment protection. The present protocol was convenient and applicable to a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons and could be amenable to high throughput synthesis of combinatorial libraries for potential drug development, which needs to be studied as part of future investigations.


Potassium Periodate/NaNO2/KHSO4-Mediated Nitration of Aromatic Compounds and Kinetic Study of Nitration of Phenols in Aqueous Acetonitrile

Abstract: Synthesis and kinetics of potassium periodate(KIO4)/NaNO2/KHSO4)-initiated nitration of aromatic compounds have been studied in aqueous acetonitrile medium. Synthesis of nitroaromatic compounds is achieved under conventional and solvent-free microwave conditions. Reaction times in microwave-assisted reaction are comparatively less than in conventional reaction. The reaction kinetics for the nitration of phenols in aqueous bisulfate and acetonitrile medium indicated first-order dependence on [phenol], [NaNO2], and [KIO4]. An increase in [KHSO4] accelerated the rate of nitration under otherwise similar conditions. The rate of nitration increased in the solvent of high dielectric media (solvents with high dielectric constant (D)). Observed results were in accordance with Amis and Kirkwood plots [log k′ vs. (1/D) and [(D − 1)/(2D + 1)]. These observations probably indicate the participation of anionic species and molecular or (dipolar) species in the rate-determining step. In addition, the plots of (log k′) versus volume% of organic solvent were also linear, which probably indicate the importance of both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic forces, solvent–solute interactions during nitration of phenols. Reaction rates accelerated with the introduction of electron-donating groups and retarded with electron-withdrawing groups, but results could not be quantitatively correlated with Hammett's equation and depicted deviations from linearity. These deviations could probably be attributed to cumulative effects arising inductive, resonance, and steric effects. Leffler's plot (ΔH# vs. ΔS#) was found linear indicating the compensation (cumulative) effect of both enthalpy and entropy parameters in controlling the mechanism of nitration.

Pub.: 12 Jun '17, Pinned: 30 Jul '17