Graduate Student, University of California Riverside
Since its isolation in 2004, graphene has become one of the most promising materials of the twenty-first century, particularly for next-generation electronics. Because conventional silicon-based electronics face fundamental limitations at the nanoscale, preparing and modifying graphene for use in next-generation carbon-based nanoelectronics has been the focus of intense research.
Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
Pub.: 26 Feb '07, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10(13) per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of approximately 10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
Pub.: 23 Oct '04, Pinned: 30 Jun '17