Lecturer, Faculty of veterinary medicine, South valley university, Qena, Egypt
Lactic acid treatment of grains modify structure of starch and improve rumen phosphorus degradation
Continuous genetic improvement of dairy cows for milk production increased their energy need. Therefore, feeding high grain diets has become a common practice. Feeding high grain diets to ruminants has sequential consequences on animal health and environment due to increasing phosphorus(P) excretion into the environment. To deal with both issues, one of the goals of ruminant nutrition research is to modulate degradability of starch-rich cereal grains in the gut, especially in the rumen where intensive microbial degradation of macronutrients as well as utilization of micronutrients take place. At best, the modulation should result in slowing down ruminal degradation of starch while increasing ruminal degradability and thus bioavailability of phytate P. In this context, there has been research dealing with mechanical or thermal processing techniques (e.g., pelleting, roasting and rolling) as well as chemical methods of cereal grains (e.g., ammonia, formaldehyde, sodium hydroxide and fibrolytic enzymes). These processing techniques may exert desirable effects on slowing down ruminal starch degradability, but they can impair the solubility of phytate P and therefore suppress ruminal phytate degradation in the rumen. To date, lactic acid (LA), citric acid (CA) and tannic acid (TA) have been the main organic acids used for treating grains. Treatment of grains with organic acids could change the chemical composition of grain starch. Accordingly, treatment of barley grain with 5% LA largely enhanced the resistant starch. Furthermore, studies showed that treating barley with 1 and 5% LA can reduce the rate of enzymatic digestion of LA-treated grain starch and modulate rumen microbial fermentation in vitro by enhancing propionate formation and lowering branched-chain SCFA and caproate in the ruminal fluid.Increased content of slowly degradable starch in the grains after acid processing may assist in slowing down ruminal starch degradation while increasing bypass starch from the rumen to the lower gut. These effects could be beneficial in terms of ruminal pH stabilization and thus acid treatment may decrease the risk of developing digestive diseases. In addition, LA treatment of grains enhances the ruminal hydrolysis of of phytate in the grains. As such, decreasing needs for inorganic P supplementation. This work aimed at unmasking the effects of treatment of grains with 5% LA the concentration efficient in enhancing phytate liberation and changing starch structure
Abstract: The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased milk fat content and tended to increase fat:protein ratio in the milk. In conclusion, results demonstrated that treatment of barley grain with LA lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis and maintained high milk fat content in late-lactating Holstein cows fed diets based on barley grain.
Pub.: 20 Nov '09, Pinned: 17 Aug '17
Abstract: Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on plasma concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids or rumen endotoxin was evidenced. Taken together, our results demonstrated that feeding barley grain steeped in 0.5% LA modulated both energy status and innate immunity of dairy cows fed relatively high levels (45% of dry matter) of dietary concentrate.
Pub.: 23 Oct '10, Pinned: 17 Aug '17
Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (La) with or without thermal treatment on reticuloruminal pH dynamics and metabolic activity of the liver in 12 primiparous and 18 multiparous early-lactating dairy cows. All cows were included on d 21 postpartum and sampled until d 90 postpartum. Cows were fed a diet based on differently processed ground barley grain: untreated grain (control diet, CON), or grain treated with 1% La alone for 24 h before feeding (La), or with an additional oven-heating at 55°C for 12 h (LaH). The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were measured via indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous (every 10min) and long-term measurement from d 21 to 80 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d 21, 40, and 90 of lactation and analyzed for liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and serum amyloid A. Dry matter intake was higher in multiparous cows (20.7±0.27 kg/d) compared with primiparous cows (18.2±0.33 kg/d), but was not affected by dietary treatment. Overall, the relatively short duration (51±5min/d) of reticuloruminal pH <5.8 suggests low risk of subacute ruminal acidosis throughout the experiment. Results indicated that La treatment of barley, with or without heat, lowered the time duration of pH <5.8 compared with CON, but only in primiparous cows (from 118±13 to 46±11 and 25±11min/d for CON, La, and LaH, respectively). In multiparous cows, the opposite effect of feeding the La-treated barley on time duration of pH <5.8 (11±8 vs. 46±9 vs. 57±9min/d for CON, La, and LaH, respectively) was observed. Multiparous cows generally showed higher pH readings and shorter periods in which the ruminal pH dropped below the threshold of pH 5.8. The reticuloruminal temperature was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas parity affected the time duration of reticuloruminal temperature >39.5°C, being 60±19min/d shorter in primiparous cows. The measured activities of the liver enzymes AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, were not affected by grain feeding. Additionally, only one small effect of parity on investigated serum variables was noticed, showing slightly but significantly higher values of AST in multiparous (80.5±1.4 U/L) compared with primiparous cows (76.0±1.7 U/L). In conclusion, our results indicate greater risk for primiparous cows to develop subacute ruminal acidosis-like conditions during early lactation than multiparous cows. The study also suggests limited benefits of feeding processed barley grain with La with or without thermal treatment to modulate ruminal tolerance of grain feeding, whereby differing effects in primiparous cows were observed compared with multiparous cows.
Pub.: 21 Jul '15, Pinned: 17 Aug '17
Abstract: Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum. Cows were fed 3 total mixed rations differing in supplementation of inorganic phosphorus and treatment of concentrates. The control (CON) and LA (+P) diets included a concentrate mixture containing 0.8% monocalcium phosphate, and the LA (-P) diet contained no inorganic phosphorus source. The concentrates of the LA (+P) and LA (-P) diets were treated with 5% LA for 24 h before feeding, and the concentrate of the CON diet was not treated. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk composition and blood variables were determined on several occasions during the trial. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous measurement during the experimental period. Data showed depressed dry matter intake in cows receiving LA-treated concentrates, but milk yield, body weight, and body weight changes remained similar among treatment groups. Cows receiving the LA-treated diets had lower concentrations of serum nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, and insulin, and they tended to have higher serum phosphorus levels. On the other hand, reticuloruminal pH was lower and duration of the pH being <6.0 was longer in cows in the LA-treated groups. Aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and concentrations of bilirubin and bile acids were lower in the LA (-P) group. Taken together, the 5% LA-treated diet without inorganic phosphorus supplementation did not exert any negative effects on performance. The observed beneficial effects on blood metabolites related to lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and liver variables, as well as the tendency for greater systemic phosphorus circulation, suggest that diets including concentrates treated with 5% LA may allow for savings of inorganic phosphorus supplementation in dairy cows. Treatment with 5% LA enhanced cows' risk of developing subacute rumen acidosis, although this condition showed no adverse effects with respect to liver variables and the inflammatory response.
Pub.: 30 May '16, Pinned: 17 Aug '17
Abstract: Recent data indicate positive effects of treating grain with citric (CAc) or lactic acid (LAc) on the hydrolysis of phytate phosphorus (P) and fermentation products of the grain. This study used a semicontinuous rumen simulation technique to evaluate the effects of processing of barley with 50.25 g/L (wt/vol) CAc or 76.25 g/L LAc on microbial composition, metabolic fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation at low or high dietary P supply. The low P diet [3.1g of P per kg of dry matter (DM) of dietary P sources only] was not supplemented with inorganic P, whereas the high P diet was supplemented with 0.5 g of inorganic P per kg of DM through mineral premix and 870 mg of inorganic P/d per incubation fermenter via artificial saliva. Target microbes were determined using quantitative PCR. Data showed depression of total bacteria but not of total protozoa or short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration with the low P diet. In addition, the low P diet lowered the relative abundance of Ruminococcus albus and decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation and acetate proportion, but increased the abundance of several predominantly noncellulolytic bacterial species and anaerobic fungi. Treatment of grain with LAc increased the abundance of total bacteria in the low P diet only, and this effect was associated with a greater concentration of SCFA in the ruminal fluid. Interestingly, in the low P diet, CAc treatment of barley increased the most prevalent bacterial group, the genus Prevotella, in ruminal fluid and increased NDF degradation to the same extent as did inorganic P supplementation in the high P diet. Treatment with either CAc or LAc lowered the abundance of Megasphaera elsdenii but only in the low P diet. On the other hand, CAc treatment increased the proportion of acetate in the low P diet, whereas LAc treatment decreased this variable at both dietary P levels. The propionate proportion was significantly increased by LAc at both P levels, whereas butyrate increased only with the low P diet. Treatments with CAc or LAc reduced the degradation of CP and ammonia concentration compared with the control diet at both P levels. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of CAc and LAc treatment on specific ruminal microbes, fermentation profile, and fiber degradation in the low P diet suggest the potential for the treatment to compensate for the lack of inorganic P supplementation in vitro. Further research is warranted to determine the extent to which the treatment can alleviate the shortage of inorganic P supplementation under in vivo conditions.
Pub.: 25 Aug '15, Pinned: 17 Aug '17
Abstract: Molassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a viable alternative to grains in cattle nutrition for reducing human edible energy input. Yet, little is known about the effects of high inclusion rates of Bp on rumen microbiota. This study used an in vitro approach and the qPCR technique to establish the effects of a graded replacement of maize grain (MG) by Bp on the ruminal microbial community, fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation.Six different amounts of Bp (0 to 400 g kg(-1) ) which replaced MG in the diet were tested, using the in vitro semi continuous rumen simulation technique. The increased inclusion of Bp resulted in greater dietary contents and degradation of neutral detergent fibre (P<0.01). Further, Bp feeding enhanced (P<0.01) the abundance of genus Prevotella and shifted (P<0.01) the SCFA patterns in favour of acetate and propionate and at the expense of butyrate. A total replacement of MG with Bp resulted in an increased daily methane production (P<0.01).Results suggest positive effects of the replacement of MG by Bp especially in terms of stimulating ruminal acetate and propionate fermentation. However, high replacement rates of Bp resulted in lowered utilization of ammonia and higher ruminal methane production.
Pub.: 20 Jul '17, Pinned: 09 Aug '17
Abstract: Rumen microbiota have important metabolic functions for the host animal. This study aimed at characterizing changes in rumen microbial abundances and fermentation profiles using a severe subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in vitro model, and to evaluate a potential modulatory role of plant derived alkaloids (PDA), containing quaternary benzophenanthridine and protopine alkaloids, of which sanguinarine and chelerythrine were the major bioactive compounds. Induction of severe SARA strongly affected the rumen microbial composition and fermentation variables without suppressing the abundance of total bacteria. Protozoa and fungi were more sensitive to the low ruminal pH condition than bacteria. Induction of severe SARA clearly depressed degradation of fiber (P < 0.001), which came along with a decreased relative abundance of fibrolytic Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.001). Under severe SARA conditions, the genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus group, Megasphaera elsdenii, and Entodinium spp. (P < 0.001) were more abundant, whereas Ruminobacter amylophilus was less abundant. SARA largely suppressed methane formation (-70%, P < 0.001), although total methanogenic 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected. According to principal component analysis, Methanobrevibacter spp. correlated to methane concentration. Addition of PDA modulated ruminal fermentation under normal conditions such as enhanced (P < 0.05) concentration of total SCFA, propionate and valerate, and increased (P < 0.05) degradation of crude protein compared with the unsupplemented control diet. Our results indicate strong shifts in the microbial community during severe SARA compared to normal conditions. Supplementation of PDA positively modulates ruminal fermentation under normal ruminal pH conditions.
Pub.: 13 Feb '16, Pinned: 09 Aug '17