PhD SCHOLAR, INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GUWAHATI
WE ARE STUDYING THE ROLE OF DIFFERENT CALCIUM SIGNALING GENES IN VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE FUNGUS NEUROSPORA CRASSA. WE ARE USING GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AS TOOL TO STUDY THE ROLE OF DIFFERENT CALCIUM SIGNALING GENES. AS , A RESULT OF WHICH WE CAN HYPOTHESIZE THE FUNCTION OF SIMILAR GENES IN OTHER ORGANISMS .
Abstract: Candidiasis has increased significantly recently that threatens patients with low immunity. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of fungal resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. Combination drug therapy is one of the most widely used and effective strategy to alleviate this problem. In this paper, we were aimed to evaluate the combined antifungal effects of four CCBs (calcium channel blockers), amlodipine (AML), nifedipine (NIF), benidipine (BEN) and flunarizine (FNZ) with fluconazole against C. albicans by checkerboard and time-killing method. In addition, we determined gene (CCH1, MID1, CNA1, CNB1, YVC1, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) expression by quantitative PCR and investigated the efflux pump activity of resistant candida albicans by rhodamine 6G assay to reveal the potential mechanisms. Finally, we concluded that there was a synergy when fluconazole combined with the four tested CCBs against resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5, but no interaction against sensitive strains (FICI = 0.56 ~ 2). The mechanism studies revealed that fluconazole plus amlodipine caused down-regulating of CNA1, CNB1 (encoding calcineurin) and YVC1 (encoding calcium channel protein in vacuole membrane).
Pub.: 18 Mar '16, Pinned: 24 Aug '17
Abstract: Animal studies have shown that the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine and tacrolimus can activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). A common side effect of CNIs is hypertension. Renal salt transporters such as NCC are excreted in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) after internalization into multivesicular bodies. Human studies indicate that CNIs also increase NCC abundance in uEVs, but results are conflicting and no relationship with NCC function has been shown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CsA and Tac on the abundance of both total NCC (tNCC) and phosphorylated NCC at Thr60 phosphorylation site (pNCC) in uEVs, and assessed whether NCC abundance in uEVs predicts the blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics. Our results show that in kidney transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine (n = 9) or tacrolimus (n = 23), the abundance of both tNCC and pNCC in uEVs is 4-5 fold higher than in CNI-free kidney transplant recipients (n = 13) or healthy volunteers (n = 6). In hypertensive kidney transplant recipients, higher abundances of tNCC and pNCC prior to treatment with thiazides predicted the blood pressure response to thiazides. During thiazide treatment, the abundance of pNCC in uEVs increased in responders (n = 10), but markedly decreased in non-responders (n = 8). Thus, our results show that CNIs increase the abundance of both tNCC and pNCC in uEVs, and these increases correlate with the blood pressure response to thiazides. This implies that assessment of NCC in uEVs could represent an alternate method to guide anti-hypertensive therapy in kidney transplant recipients.
Pub.: 22 Apr '17, Pinned: 24 Aug '17
Abstract: Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase in eukaryotes that consists of a catalytic subunit A and a regulatory subunit B. Previous studies in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa had suggested that the catalytic subunit of calcineurin might be an essential protein. We generated N. crassa strains expressing the A (cna-1) and B (cnb-1) subunit genes under the regulation of Ptcu-1, a copper-responsive promoter. In these strains, addition of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCS), a copper chelator, results in induction of cna-1 and cnb-1, while excess Cu2+ represses gene expression. Through analysis of these strains under repressing and inducing conditions, we found that the calcineurin is required for normal growth, asexual development and female fertility in N. crassa. Moreover, we isolated and analyzed cnb-1 mutant alleles generated by repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), with the results further supporting roles for calcineurin in growth and fertility in N. crassa. We demonstrated a direct interaction between the CNA-1 and CNB-1 proteins using an assay system developed to study protein-protein interactions in N. crassa.
Pub.: 29 Mar '16, Pinned: 24 Aug '17