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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Sean Williamson

I am a coastal kid from the South Coast of NSW in Australia, a few hours south of Sydney. I moved to Melbourne for my PhD and had the fantastic opportunity to complete my fieldwork all over the North of Australia and in Costa Rica.

I love spending my time in the ocean, through surfing, swimming, snorkelling and diving. I also like to connect with nature by going on bushwalks with friends and camping out at our favourite spots. I am passionate about conservation and ensuring our future generations can experience the wonders of the natural world we inhabit.

PINBOARD SUMMARY

Research on how variance in diet influences gut morphology and physiology

Research I conducted during my undergraduate honours year at the University of Wollongong under the supervision of Adam Munn and in collaboration with Stephanie Courtney Jones. We investigated how diet fibre influences gut morphology and physiology in galliform birds, specifically in chickens and quail.

3 ITEMS PINNED

No effect of short-term exposure to high-fibre diets on the gastrointestinal morphology of layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): body reserves are used to manage energy deficits in favour of phenotypic plasticity.

Abstract: Summary Using layer hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, we compared the digestive capabilities of birds on a low-fibre diet (LF, 8.49% neutral detergent fibre; NDF), with those fed a high-fibre diet balanced for energy and protein to match the LF diet (high fibre balanced, HFB; NDF = 15.61%) and those fed a high fibre unbalanced (HFU) diet (NDF = 16.68%). The HFU diet had the lowest apparent dry matter (DM) metabolisability at 58.14 ± 6.46%, followed by HFB, 65.87 ± 3.50 and the LF diet, 70.49 ± 7.07%. Despite significant differences between apparent DM metabolisabilities of LF and HFU diets, no morphometric changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of layer hens were observed (including crop, gizzard, proventriculus, liver, large intestine, paired caeca and small intestine). Conversely, body mass losses were recorded for animals on HFU diet, while those on the LF and HFB diets actually gained body mass over the 14-day trials. We suggest that the body mass losses seen in the animals fed HFU diets were attributed to losses in adipose tissue, but this was not quantified. Assuming body mass losses were mainly in adipose tissue, we propose that adipose may act to buffer environmental challenges like shortfalls in nutrient acquisition when dietary energy requirements are not met. Compared with smaller birds (e.g. quail), the larger body size of the layer hens may offer them a greater safety margin in terms of body energy reserves before changes in the GIT might be needed to redress energy deficits associated with hard-to-digest, high-fibre diets.

Pub.: 14 Aug '12, Pinned: 15 Oct '17

Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

Abstract: Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta.

Pub.: 01 Mar '14, Pinned: 15 Oct '17