PhD Candidate, University of Queensland
One of the major limitations of venom research is the narrow taxonomical range studied, with entire groups of venomous animals remaining neglected. Aculeata, a group of stinging insects are one such group, and with the exception of a few medically important species, very little has been done. Solitary species in particular remain almost entirely unstudied, despite over 90% of the Aculeata being solitary. In this study, the venom of Aculeata as a whole was evaluated and compared using various proteomic and transcriptomic methods alongside activity assays, in particular the variation between social and solitary species. Their venom revealed striking differences between the social and solitary species, reflecting the fundamentally different purposes that the venom has evolved for. The diversity of proteins and peptides found within their venoms highlights the extent of venom diversification within this neglected group of stinging insects.
Abstract: Fish venoms are often poorly studied, in part due to the difficulty in obtaining, extracting, and storing them. In this study, we characterize the cardiovascular and neurotoxic effects of the venoms from the following six species of fish: the cartilaginous stingrays Neotrygon kuhlii and Himantura toshi, and the bony fish Platycephalus fucus, Girella tricuspidata, Mugil cephalus, and Dentex tumifrons. All venoms (10-100 μg/kg, i.v.), except G. tricuspidata and P. fuscus, induced a biphasic response on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the anesthetised rat. P. fucus venom exhibited a hypotensive response, while venom from G. tricuspidata displayed a single depressor response. All venoms induced cardiovascular collapse at 200 μg/kg, i.v. The in vitro neurotoxic effects of venom were examined using the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle (CBCNM) preparation. N. kuhlii, H. toshi, and P. fucus venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches in the CBCNM preparation. These three venoms also inhibited responses to exogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh), but not potassium chloride (KCl), indicating a post-synaptic mode of action. Venom from G. tricuspidata, M. cephalus, and D. tumifrons had no significant effect on indirect twitches or agonist responses in the CBCNM. Our results demonstrate that envenoming by these species of fish may result in moderate cardiovascular and/or neurotoxic effects. Future studies aimed at identifying the molecules responsible for these effects could uncover potentially novel lead compounds for future pharmaceuticals, in addition to generating new knowledge about the evolutionary relationships between venomous animals.
Pub.: 18 Feb '17, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: The potential of marine natural products to become new drugs is vast; however, research is still in its infancy. The chemical and biological diversity of marine toxins is immeasurable and as such an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new drugs. With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), it has been much easier and faster to identify more toxins and predict their functions with bioinformatics pipelines, which pave the way for novel drug developments. Here we provide an overview of related bioinformatics pipelines that have been supported by a combination of transcriptomics and proteomics for identification and function prediction of novel marine toxins.
Pub.: 31 Mar '17, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators . Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection. Here, we investigate the evolution of fangs, venom, and mimetic relationships in reef fishes from the tribe Nemophini (fangblennies). Comparative morphological analyses reveal that enlarged canine teeth (fangs) originated at the base of the Nemophini radiation and have enabled a micropredatory feeding strategy in non-venomous Plagiotremus spp. Subsequently, the evolution of deep anterior grooves and their coupling to venom secretory tissue provide Meiacanthus spp. with toxic venom that they effectively employ for defense. We find that fangblenny venom contains a number of toxic components that have been independently recruited into other animal venoms, some of which cause toxicity via interactions with opioid receptors, and result in a multifunctional biochemical phenotype that exerts potent hypotensive effects. The evolution of fangblenny venom has seemingly led to phenotypic convergence via the formation of a diverse array of mimetic relationships that provide protective (Batesian mimicry) and predatory (aggressive mimicry) benefits to other fishes [2, 6]. Our results further our understanding of how novel morphological and biochemical adaptations stimulate ecological interactions in the natural world.
Pub.: 04 Apr '17, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis) were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.
Pub.: 12 Jul '16, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
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