Doctoral Student, University of Massachusetts Medical School
U.S adults living in food insecure households achieved a lower ideal cardiovascular health score.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2012) was analyzed to quantify the extent to which food insecurity in U.S. adults is associated with poorer cardiovascular health. The United States Department of Agriculture Adult Food Security questionnaire assessed food insecurity status. An ideal cardiovascular health score was generated from the sum of American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 metrics components achieved. The metrics included three health factors (blood glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure) and four health behaviors (non-smoking, physical activity, healthy BMI, and healthy diet). U.S adults living in food insecure households achieved a lower ideal cardiovascular health score, which was driven by its association with smoking status. Effective cardiovascular health promotion policies and health behavior interventions are prudent, specifically to improve diet quality among all U.S. adults and tobacco cessation within food insecure populations.
Abstract: Until recently there was lacking a common food security measure and the necessary data to study the individual-level determinants of food insecurity around the world. In 2014, the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Voices of the Hungry project developed an experiential measure of food insecurity, the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), translated it into 200 languages, and contracted Gallup, Inc. for collection of data through the Gallup World Poll. This is the first paper that identifies and examines the common determinants of food insecurity in 134 countries using this cross-country comparable experiential measure of food insecurity. We also investigate whether and to what extent the common determinants of food insecurity identified in a global model differ across rankings of economic development. Using a series of multilevel linear probability models, we find that the five characteristics associated with the largest increase in the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity around the world are: having low levels of education, weak social networks, less social capital, low household income, and being unemployed. We also find significant heterogeneity in the determinants of food insecurity over development rankings. This study is an important first step in utilizing the new FIES to document risk factors of food insecurity around the globe.
Pub.: 28 Jan '17, Pinned: 29 Aug '17
Abstract: Health outcomes in cardiovascular disease in the USA have generally been improving over the past several decades. Those gains have been related to both developments in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. To further enhance improvement in health outcomes, including cardiovascular outcomes, health policies have been implemented to incentivize prevention. These policies have strong conceptual appeal and have been associated with improvements in some health metrics. However, robust research methods, accounting for bias and statistical confounding, are critical to confirm that these policies are associated with prevention of cardiovascular events for patients over time.
Pub.: 04 May '17, Pinned: 29 Aug '17
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the number one cause of death in women. It is estimated that 44 million women in the United States are either living with or at risk for heart disease. This article highlights the recent significant progress made in improving care, clinical decision-making, and policy implications for women with CVD. We provide our perspective supported by evidence-based advances in cardiovascular research and clinical care guidelines in seven areas: (1) primary CVD prevention and community heart care, (2) secondary prevention of CVD, (3) stroke, (4) heart failure and cardiomyopathies, (5) ischemia with nonobstructive coronary artery disease, (6) spontaneous coronary artery dissection, and (7) arrhythmias and device therapies. Advances in these fields have improved the lives of women living with and at risk for heart disease. With increase awareness, partnership with national organizations, sex-specific research, and changes in policy, the morbidity and mortality of CVD in women can be further reduced.
Pub.: 18 Jul '17, Pinned: 29 Aug '17
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