Ph.D in Biotechnology and an expert in Machine Learning
45.8 Million slaves generate over US$30 Billion of income. Do their lives matter?
In The Second Series on human trafficking, we focus on Ghana. The Walk Free Foundation fights human trafficking released the Global Slavery Index for Ghana. Enslaved Ghanaians range from 103,300 - 193,100. Lake Volta. A 400 km long man-made lake where 40,000 very young children work. 21,000 of them trafficked.
James Kofi Annan was enslaved at age 6. Well dressed men and well turned out children paraded before his illiterate parents. Traffickers promised his parents education and a job for James. Sold to fish operators instead for as little as $20, he faced hazardous work conditions from 3 am to 8 pm. With meager food and no pay. beaten by cruel handlers when he attempted to run away. On another occasion, he saw a boy beaten to death. Many drown when tossed overboard to salvage a $200 net. Some died from malaria.
7 years later James finally did escape and buried himself in education. Attended university and worked in the Barclays Bank of Ghana. In 2003 he set up Challenging Heights. A charity that aims to end child trafficking, reduce child slavery. It promotes children's rights by providing education for former Lake Volta slaves. And offers micro-businesses for mothers to keep their children in school.
Mabels' mother died when she was a young girl and sent to live with relatives. Her grandfather sold her into slavery to recoup the cost of her mother's burial. On her arrival at Lake Volta, Mabel recalls scared because the lake is very big. When the wind is blowing, you can go down, and you will die. Forced to fold fishing nets and cook for workers. And to fish late at night with little sleep. Beaten often when she did not comply to cook after a long day's work. Her only consolation was when storms disrupt fishing work.
James' team visited fishing communities, to find children sold into slavery. Traveling to Lake Volta they found Mabel. She settled in a school that James founded. Linda a school teacher says that Mabel loves school and has learned English. “Mabel’s future is bright. She is a very intelligent girl. She’s very clever.” Mabel has dreams for the future “I want to become a nurse,”. Mabel’s triumphant journey from slave to aspiring student became a mini-documentary. In the Discovery Channels video series Discovery Learning Alliance.
Abstract: Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs.
Pub.: 17 Apr '08, Pinned: 05 May '17
Abstract: In this article, I interrogate how the UK government constructs and manipulates the idiom of the vulnerable female, trafficked migrant. Specifically, I analyse how the government aligns aspects of its anti-trafficking plans with plans to enhance extraterritorial immigration and border control. In order to do this, I focus on the discursive strategies that revolve around the UK’s anti-trafficking initiatives. I argue that discourses of human trafficking as prostitution, modern-day slavery and organised crime do important work. Primarily, they provide the government with a moral platform from which it can develop its regulatory capacity overseas. It is not my intention to suggest that the government’s anti-trafficking plans are superficial, and that extraterritoriality is the sole driver. On the contrary, I argue that complex interrelationships exist and while the government’s interest in protecting vulnerable women from sexual exploitation may seem to be paramount, I assert that in fact it intersects with other agendas at key points. I consider how government action to protect vulnerable women in trafficking ‘source’ and ‘transit’ countries such as development aid and repatriation schemes relate to broader legal and political concerns about protecting the UK from unwanted ‘Others’.
Pub.: 10 Nov '12, Pinned: 05 May '17
Abstract: ‘Modern slavery’ is increasingly being recognized by the international community as having the potential to circumvent the rule of law by virtue of the impunity with which many exploiters operate. The threat posed by exploiters is not, however, restricted to the state; the horror stories often shared by victims as to the grave nature of the exploitation they typically have to endure suggest that both victims and the wider community must be prepared to confront the phenomenon of modern slavery in a robust and concerted fashion. In view of the quickly evolving dynamics of modern slavery and the corresponding threats posed to the state and its citizens, the Westminster Parliament recently passed the Modern Slavery Act, some two-and-a-half months after the Northern Irish Assembly passed the Human Trafficking and Exploitation Act. To the extent that the nuances of the Modern Slavery Act have not been comprehensively examined in the existing literature to date, this article aims to provide a critical legislative commentary of its myriad provisions, in an effort to determine their relative strengths and weaknesses, as well as their likely impact in practice.
Pub.: 20 Feb '16, Pinned: 05 May '17
Abstract: Although distinct legal definitions exist, rhetoric concerning slavery and enslavement is consistently intertwined with human trafficking. These concepts, along with many other exploitative practices are often collectively labelled: ‘modern slavery’ or some variation thereof. This term enjoys no utility under international law but is nevertheless heavily used in discourse. Beginning with a legal analysis regarding what constitutes slavery, enslavement and trafficking, respectively, this article endeavours to clarify these crimes as codified under international law. Thereafter, a textual analysis of relevant enslavement judgments follows in an attempt to identify the manifestation of any entangled legal discourse between these concepts. It ultimately leads to question whether these crimes are in fact distinguishable considering international jurisprudence on the matter; or, whether enslavement as a crime against humanity has already incorporated the law of trafficking within its construct.
Pub.: 19 May '16, Pinned: 05 May '17
Abstract: There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking.
Pub.: 21 Jan '17, Pinned: 05 May '17
Abstract: This article examines the impact of women's rights organizations (WROs) in preventing human trafficking and improving state policies on trafficking. WROs, through their knowledge and experience working with governments, and the services they provide to women, are in a strong position to influence trafficking outcomes and policies.Implementing a cross-national time series analysis of states between the years 2000 and 2007 with data on WRO presence within states, shaming by WROs, and data on trafficking flows and policy, we test our hypotheses.We show support for the hypothesis that WRO presence and shaming can lead to improvements in this important policy area.In a growing literature on the effects of NGOs on state policy and human rights, this study illustrates an additional important area where NGOs lead to improvements in policy outcomes.
Pub.: 08 Mar '17, Pinned: 05 May '17
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