Assistant Professor, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
Deficiency of Boron is becoming big concern for crop production under limited water resources. there must be some strategies to cope the situation. I am working on exogenous application of boron in maize with deficit irrigation. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of B on growth and yield related traits of maize under water deficit condition. A field experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Multan. Experiment was comprised of four treatments viz. control (full irrigation), water deficit without B, full irrigation with 1% B foliar application, water deficit with 1% B foliar application at 5 leaf stage of maize. The treatments were applied with factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Our result revealed that foliar application of 1% B significantly increased different growth, and yield related traits of maize under water deficit as well as full irrigation. The foliar application of 1% B produced maximum plant height, cob length, no. of rows per cob, no. of grains per cob, grain weight, grain yield of maize in full irrigation. However, these parameters were improved in water deficit irrigation with 1% B as compared to no B in water deficit conditions. Our result shows that foliar application of 1% B mitigated the shortage of water and improved the growth and yield of maize plants.
Abstract: The effects of 50 mM NaCl and 5, 10, 15 and 20 mM boron on the rate of germination, growth rate, contents of boron, sodium, potassium and chloride, and membrane permeability in maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were studied. Germination rate, lengths of roots and shoots as well as dry matter production in the two tested plants, decreased with the increasing B concentration in nonsaline conditions, and markedly under salinity. Membrane permeability increased by increasing B concentration only under salinity. Increase in B concentration of sorghum was lower under salinity when compared to nonsaline conditions. Contrary to this, increase in B concentration of maize was higher under salinity. Under salinity Na and Cl concentrations increased and K concentration decreased in the both tested plants. Potassium concentration was decreased by B treatments under salinity.
Pub.: 01 Sep '03, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: Long-term tillage has been shown to induce water stress episode during crop growth period due to low water retention capacity. It is unclear whether integrated water conservation tillage systems, such asspringdeepinter-row subsoiling with annual or biennial repetitions, can be developed to alleviate this issue while improve crop productivity.Experimentswere carried out in a spring maize cropping system on Calcaric-fluvicCambisolsatJiaozuoexperimentstation, northern China, in 2009 to 2014. Effects of threesubsoiling depths (i.e., 30 cm, 40 cm, and 50 cm) in combination with annual and biennial repetitionswasdetermined in two single-years (i.e., 2012 and 2014)againstthe conventional tillage. The objectives were to investigateyield response to subsoiling depths and soil water deficit(SWD), and to identify the most effective subsoiling treatment using a systematic assessment.Annualsubsoiling to 50 cm (AS-50) increased soil water storage (SWS, mm) by an average of8% in 0-20 cm soil depth, 19% in 20-80 cm depth, and 10% in 80-120 cm depth, followed by AS-40 and BS-50, whereas AS-30 and BS-30 showed much less effects in increasing SWS across the 0-120 cm soil profile, compared to the CK. AS-50 significantly reduced soil water deficit (SWD, mm) by an average of123% during sowing to jointing, 318% during jointing to filling, and 221% during filling to maturity, compared to the CK, followed by AS-40 and BS-50. An integrated effect on increasing SWS and reducing SWD helped AS-50 boost grain yield by an average of 31% and biomass yield by 30%, compared to the CK. A power function for subsoiling depth and a negative linear function for SWD were used to fit the measured yields, showing the deepest subsoiling depth (50 cm) with the lowest SWD contributed to the highest yield. Systematic assessment showed that AS-50 received the highest evaluation index (0.69 out of 1.0) among all treatments.Deepinter-row subsoilingwith annual repetition significantly boosts yield by alleviating SWD in critical growth period and increasing SWS in 20-80 cm soil depth. The results allow us to conclude that AS-50 can be adopted as an effective approach to increase crop productivity, alleviate water stress, and improve soil water availability for spring maize in northern China.
Pub.: 23 Apr '16, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: Boron adsorption by cell walls isolated from corn (Zea mays) roots was investigated as a function of solution pH and ionic strength. Adsorption increased with increasing solution pH from pH 4.5 to 10, exhibited an adsorption maximum at pH 10–10.5, and decreased with increases in pH above 10.5. Boron adsorption increased with increasing solution ionic strength indicating the formation of strong inner-sphere surface complexes. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model was well able to describe the B adsorption data, optimizing two B surface complexes and the dissociation constant for the surface functional group, XOH. The large absolute value of the dissociation constant is consistent with phenolic functional groups.
Pub.: 01 Apr '03, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: Boron (B) deficiency depresses wheat, barley and triticale yield through male sterility. On the basis of field responses to B fertilization, maize (Zea mays L.) is affected by B deficiency in five continents. In a series of sand culture trials with maize subject to B0 (nil added B) and B20 (20 μM added B) treatments, we described how B deficiency depressed maize grain yield while showing an imperceptible effect on vegetative dry weight. With manual application of pollen to the silk of each plant, B0 plants produced 0.4 grain ear−1 compared with 410 grains ear−1 in B20 plants. Symptoms of B deficiency was observed only in B0 plants, which exhibited symptoms of narrow white to transparent lengthwise streaks on leaves, multiple but small and abnormal ears with very short silk, small tassels with some branches emerging dead, and small, shrivelled anthers devoid of pollen. Tassels, silk and pollen of B0 plants contained only 3–4 mg B kg−1 DW compared with twice or more B in these reproductive tissues in B20 plants. A cross-fertilization experiment showed that, although the tassels and pollen were more affected, the silk was more sensitive to B deficiency. Pollen from B20 plants applied to B0 silk produced almost no grains, while pollen from B0 on B20 silk increased the number of grains to 37% of the 452 grains plant−1 produced from B20 pollen on B20 silk. Therefore, the silk of the first ear may be targeted for precise diagnosis of B status at maize reproduction, for timely correction by foliar B application, and even for B-efficient genotype selection.
Pub.: 24 Dec '10, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: The combination effects of water stress and gibberellic acid (GA3) on physiological attributes and nutritional status of maize (Zea mays L. cv., DK 647 F1) were studied in a pot experiment. Maize plants were grown in the control (well watered WW) and water stress subjected to treated both water stress and two concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 25 mg L−1, 50 mg L−1). WS was imposed by maintaining the moisture level equivalent to 50 % pot capacity whereas the WW pots were maintained at full pot capacity. Water stress reduced the total dry weight, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf relative water content (RWC), but it increased proline accumulation and electrolyte leakage in maize plants and appears to affect shoots more than roots. Both concentrations of GA3 (25 and 50 mg L−1) largely enhanced the above physiological parameters to levels similar to control. WS reduced leaf Ca2+ and K+ concentrations, but exogenous application of GA3 increased those nutrient levels similar or close to control. Exogenous application of GA3 improved the water stress tolerance in maize plants by maintaining membrane permeability, enhancing chlorophyll concentration, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and some macro-nutrient concentrations in leaves.
Pub.: 01 Aug '06, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.
Pub.: 11 May '17, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: The micronutrient boron is essential in maintaining the structure of plant cell walls and is critical for high yields in crop species. Boron can move into plants by diffusion or by active and facilitated transport mechanisms. We recently showed that mutations in the maize boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR (RTE) cause severe developmental defects and sterility. RTE is part of a small gene family containing five additional members (RTE2-RTE6) that show tissue specific expression. The close paralogous gene RTE2 encodes a protein with 95% amino acid identity with RTE and is similarly expressed in shoot and root cells surrounding the vasculature. Despite sharing similar functions with RTE, mutations in the RTE2 gene do not cause growth defects in the shoot, even in boron deficient conditions. However, rte2 mutants strongly enhance the rte phenotype in soils with low boron content, producing shorter plants that fail to form all reproductive structures. The joint action of RTE and RTE2 is also required in root development. These defects can be fully complemented by supplying boric acid, suggesting that diffusion or additional transport mechanisms overcome active boron transport deficiencies in the presence of an excess of boron. Overall, these results suggest that RTE2 and RTE function are essential for maize shoot and root growth in boron deficient conditions.
Pub.: 24 Jun '17, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: Water deficit caused by global climate changes seriously endangers the survival of organisms and crop productivity, and increases environmental deterioration(1,2). Plants' resistance to drought involves global reprogramming of transcription, cellular metabolism, hormone signalling and chromatin modification(3-8). However, how these regulatory responses are coordinated via the various pathways, and the underlying mechanisms, are largely unknown. Herein, we report an essential drought-responsive network in which plants trigger a dynamic metabolic flux conversion from glycolysis into acetate synthesis to stimulate the jasmonate (JA) signalling pathway to confer drought tolerance. In Arabidopsis, the ON/OFF switching of this whole network is directly dependent on histone deacetylase HDA6. In addition, exogenous acetic acid promotes de novo JA synthesis and enrichment of histone H4 acetylation, which influences the priming of the JA signalling pathway for plant drought tolerance. This novel acetate function is evolutionarily conserved as a survival strategy against environmental changes in plants. Furthermore, the external application of acetic acid successfully enhanced the drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rapeseed, maize, rice and wheat plants. Our findings highlight a radically new survival strategy that exploits an epigenetic switch of metabolic flux conversion and hormone signalling by which plants adapt to drought.
Pub.: 27 Jun '17, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: In several crops, the water deficit is perhaps the main limiting factor in the search for high yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability of maize hybrids in environments with and without water restriction using the analytical factor (AF) approach. We evaluated 171 maize hybrids in 14 environments, divided into environments with (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7) and without (A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, and A14) water restriction, over a period of 7 years. Each year, 36 hybrids were evaluated. A square lattice design (6 x 6) was used, with common treatments between years. The characteristics of grain yield (GY), male flowering (MF) and female flowering (FF), plant height (PH), and ear height (EH) were evaluated. Phenotypic adaptability and stability of the hybrids were also verified. Hybrids G66, G99, G86, and G26 were the most stable and showed potential for use in environments with and without water restriction. The AF models showed to be useful for evaluating hybrids over many years, allowing selection of better hybrids with adaptability, specific and general stability, and correlation of hybrids with their production components, in addition to allowing identification of mega-environments that permit stability in the response of the adapted hybrids.
Pub.: 04 Jul '17, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017 Source:Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology Author(s): Hamzeh Dokoohaki, Mahdi Gheysari, Sayed-Frahad Mousavi, Gerrit Hoogenboom Crop models are useful tools for evaluation of management factors for any possible productivity improvement under water-deficit conditions. Such applications require an accurate simulation of the soil water balance. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSM-CERES-Maize model for simulating soil moisture under different irrigation levels of silage-maize. This experiment was conducted in growing seasons of 2003 and 2004. Treatments were four irrigation levels (two deficit-irrigation levels at 0.7 and 0.85 soil moisture depletion (SMD), a full irrigation (SMD) and an over-irrigation treatment (1.13 SMD), indicated by W1, W2, W3 and W4, respectively). Soil moisture was measured on a daily basis in different layers of the soil profile. In the first year, gravimetric sampling method and in the second year a neutron probe were used for measuring soil moisture. Simulated soil moisture was compared with measured field values for each individual soil layer. Results indicated that root mean square error (RMSE) of the model-predicted soil moisture for different treatments, depending on depth, was 0.8–13.6%. Systematic error and the index of agreement of the model in estimating total water in 60cm soil profile was 0.8–2.00cm. The greatest error in estimating soil moisture always happened for top layer of the soil profile. Based on the results, it can be concluded that CSM-CERES-Maize model is able to simulate soil moisture content for wide range of soil conditions and irrigation regimes.
Pub.: 16 Jun '17, Pinned: 10 Aug '17
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