Curated by a group of chocolate lovers in the Sparrho team
The science of making chocolate more enjoyable
Abstract: In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using the k-means.After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group, it is obtained R(2)ajusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kgwheat .kg(-1)total flour , 0.37 kgyacon .kg(-1)total flour , 0.14 kgmaca .kg(-1)total flour and 140.0 mL water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kgwheat .kg(-1)total flour , 0.65 kgyacon .kg(-1)total flour and 120.0 mL water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kgmaca .kg(-1)total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data was evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA).It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified the brownness and the burnt aroma and taste. Meanwhile, a larger proportion of yacon produced better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor.
Pub.: 13 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jan '17
Abstract: The temperature thawing, as called tempering, of triacylglycerols (TAGs) is an important processing method in food productions, such as chocolates, cream, confections, and spreads. Especially, melt-mediation by temperature thawing is famous in chocolate production for controlling the polymorphic crystalline forms and accelerating crystallization. In the present study, we investigated the α-melt structure of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol (POP), one of the major continuants of cacao butter, under a phase transition from its melt to γ-crystal with in-situ attenuated total reflection-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The differential IR spectrum between α-melt via temperature thawing (α-melt mediation) and melt via simple cooling revealed that crystal-like local ordered structures remained in part in the α-melt, and that they acted as nuclei for a rapid phase transition to the γ-crystal. The changes to the γ-crystal occur in the local ordered structures at first from the glycerol moiety to the acyl chains in the crystallization, providing an important suggestion concerning the mechanism for the acceleration of crystallization to the γ-form via α-melt mediation.
Pub.: 11 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jan '17
Abstract: Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionary industry but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panellists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p<0.0001), and sensory profiling with an expert panel showed an increase in both fudge (p<0.05) and condensed milk (p<0.05) flavor. GC-MS and GC-Olfactometry of both the SMPs and the model chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.
Pub.: 10 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jan '17
Abstract: Abstract Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Several factors such as contact area, ratio of the two fat phases, type of the fat, solid fat content, presence of non-fat solid particles, particle size, viscosity, structure, concentration gradient of triacylglycerols (TAGs), and storage temperature have all effect on migration rate. Mechanism of oil migration has still not been clearly understood, but possible mechanisms have been suggested and studied in the literature. Diffusion mechanism was demonstrated and modeled in many studies. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covers the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also includes a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI.AbstractOil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Several factors such as contact area, ratio of the two fat phases, type of the fat, solid fat content, presence of non-fat solid particles, particle size, viscosity, structure, concentration gradient of triacylglycerols (TAGs), and storage temperature have all effect on migration rate. Mechanism of oil migration has still not been clearly understood, but possible mechanisms have been suggested and studied in the literature. Diffusion mechanism was demonstrated and modeled in many studies. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covers the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also includes a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI.
Pub.: 21 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Jan '17
Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, the traceability and origin authentification in foodstuff is of great interest for consumers and industries. It is proved that the chemical composition is linked to the geographical and varietal origin of food products. Cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, provides a lot of polyphenol compounds still present in the chocolate bars. By analyzing these chemical species, we aim to investigate the information about the country of origin of chocolate. Our method is based on an acetone/water liquid/liquid extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-DAD-MS). Forty-seven chocolate samples of different varieties (Criollo, Trinitario, Nacional, and Forastero) from 12 countries within two continents were analyzed. Polyphenols such as catechin, epicatechin, and several of procyanidins’ polymers were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 21 variables: 20 polyphenols and the polyphenol total content. The results highlight that the polyphenolic profile allows to classify the chocolate samples according to geographical origins (Madagascar, Caribbean, different countries from South America and Africa) as well as their variety.AbstractNowadays, the traceability and origin authentification in foodstuff is of great interest for consumers and industries. It is proved that the chemical composition is linked to the geographical and varietal origin of food products. Cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, provides a lot of polyphenol compounds still present in the chocolate bars. By analyzing these chemical species, we aim to investigate the information about the country of origin of chocolate. Our method is based on an acetone/water liquid/liquid extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-DAD-MS). Forty-seven chocolate samples of different varieties (Criollo, Trinitario, Nacional, and Forastero) from 12 countries within two continents were analyzed. Polyphenols such as catechin, epicatechin, and several of procyanidins’ polymers were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 21 variables: 20 polyphenols and the polyphenol total content. The results highlight that the polyphenolic profile allows to classify the chocolate samples according to geographical origins (Madagascar, Caribbean, different countries from South America and Africa) as well as their variety.
Pub.: 26 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Jan '17
Abstract: Chocolate compound was produced using ball mill refiner, and the effect of agitator shaft speed and refining time on the physical quality parameters (particle size, colour and steady-state rheology) of compound chocolate was determined using response surface methodology. The shaft speed and refining time range were selected between 40–60 r.p.m. and 10–30 min, respectively. Determination coefficient of the models established for particle size, Newtonian viscosity and colour parameters (brightness, chroma and hue angle) were found to be very close to unity. Increasing shaft speed and time induced a reduction in particle size and an increase in viscosity of the samples. Temperature sweep test was also performed, and the obtained data were successfully fitted to Arrhenius equation to calculate the corresponding parameters representing temperature dependency of the compounds. The results highlighted that the establishment of such models can provide essential information in terms of optimisation of production processes regarding usage purpose of the compound chocolate.
Pub.: 29 Dec '16, Pinned: 06 Jan '17
Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 35 Author(s): Juan Mundel, Patricia Huddleston, Michael Vodermeier Specialty media outlets such as The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, and Business Insider have increasingly featured articles that stress the growth of the affordable luxuries market. However, “affordable” and “luxury” are two terms that do not conform to luxury goods literature. While the concept of luxury has been traditionally associated with expensive, difficult to find, and exclusive products, the aforementioned business periodicals seem to suggest that a number of products such as specialty coffee, chocolate, and other commodities can be considered affordable luxuries. We conducted an exploratory investigation to determine whether millennial consumers differentiate between the terms “luxury” and “affordable luxury,” which products they perceive to be affordable luxuries, and the price range they are willing to pay for affordable luxuries. Our exploratory study (1) shows that consumers hold similar quality expectations for luxury and affordable luxury products, (2) reveals differentiating descriptors for luxury and affordable luxury products, (3) suggests that consumers see these products as a way to enhance one's image, and (4) offers pricing guidelines for such products.
Pub.: 20 Dec '16, Pinned: 27 Dec '16
Abstract: Authors: Neena Sondhi ; Deepak Chawla Article URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10454446.2017.1244784?af=R Citation: Journal of Food Products Marketing Publication Date: 2016-12-05T11:04:41Z Journal: Journal of Food Products Marketing
Pub.: 05 Dec '16, Pinned: 27 Dec '16
Abstract: The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce-which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one.
Pub.: 16 Dec '16, Pinned: 20 Dec '16
Abstract: Microbial diversity, final concentration of volatiles compounds during fermentation and the characterization and acceptability of chocolates of three cocoa hybrids (PH 9, PH 15 and PH 16) were evaluated. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia caribbica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the predominant yeasts in the three fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Bacillus cereus and Lysinibacillus fusiformis were the common bacterial species isolated from the fermentations. The PH 9 hybrid showed highest diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Twenty-seven volatile compounds were identified during the cocoa fermentation of all hybrids. Chocolate from PH 9 hybrid had most desirable flavors and obtained the most ideal score in acceptance test. Chocolate from PH 15 hybrid was considered the most bitter, acidic and astringent. Chocolates produced by different cocoa hybrids showed differences in sensory attributes and acceptance. Therefore, special management is required for the different hybrid fermentations to obtain high-quality chocolate.As a solution to the recovery of the cocoa crop in Brazil, many hybrids resistant to the disease called “witches’ broom” were developed, but the impact of these crosses on cocoa quality, consequently in chocolate is not known. The producers’ cooperatives and farmers of cocoa have no technical or scientific information about the behavior of cocoa hybrids during spontaneous fermentation process, which, oftentimes give rise to an uncontrolled fermentation of cocoa hybrids mixture. The results of this paper could be used among the producers’ cooperatives and cocoa farmers for guidance about the influence of genetic improvement on the quality of cocoa fermented beans and chocolates, particularly among the three hybrids evaluated in this study.
Pub.: 02 Dec '16, Pinned: 05 Dec '16
Abstract: Nucleation and crystal growth rate of cocoa butters (CBs) and fats from chocolates with different compositions were studied and compared. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to determine the isothermal crystallization kinetics of these fat samples. Crystallization behaviors of the studied CBs and five different chocolate types: dark (DCh43%), white (WCh), and milk (MCh25%, MCh27%, MCh30%) were tested at two different isothermal temperatures, namely, 0°C and 20°C. The fatty acid composition and temperature affect the crystallization kinetics of CBs and chocolates. The crystallization kinetic parameters were calculated by using the Foubert model. The Foubert model revealed the best fit for all studied fat samples (R2 = 0.8951–0.9973). The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used for discrimination of similarities and differences of the studied CBs and chocolates based on their fatty acid compositions and crystallization behaviors.Quality and acceptability of confectionery products produced from cocoa depend on chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter. Therefore, the kinetics of fat crystallization is important for controlling operations in the confectionery industry to produce the desired products. For this reason the crystallization kinetics of different cocoa butters and various types of chocolates were observed by means of changes in solid fat content as a function of time and described using Foubert model.
Pub.: 01 Nov '16, Pinned: 05 Dec '16
Abstract: Dynamic microbial over the cocoa fermentation using starter culture and the effect sensory characteristics of chocolate produced were investigated. The cocoa fermentation inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA0681 and Lactobacillus fermentum UFLA CHBB 8.12 as starter cultures were assessed, and compared with spontaneous fermentation. The microbial succession was identified using polyphasic approach including classical morphological and biochemical assays, and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Overall 873 colonies were isolated, 445 (51%) strains were isolated from the spontaneous fermentation, while 428 (49%) strains were isolated from the inoculated fermentation. The dominant yeast in both fermentation processes were S. cerevisiae and Candida magnolia. L. fermentum and Pediococcus acidilactici were detected in both fermentations, whereas L. coryniformis, L. curvatus, L. mali, L. plantarum, and L. sakei were isolated from the spontaneous fermentation only. Acinetobacter sp., Gluconobacter oxydans, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were isolated from both the fermentation processes. Chocolate produced from the spontaneous fermentative process presented dominance of the bitter flavour, while obtained through inoculated fermentation process presented bitter, astringent and acid as dominant flavours. Cocoa inoculation with S. cerevisiae and L. fermentum affected the sensory quality of the produced chocolate. The microbial inoculation influenced on fermentation and therefore the final product.
Pub.: 28 Nov '16, Pinned: 01 Dec '16
Abstract: Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture. It was found that biotin stimulated fatty acid synthesis without altering cell viability and cell growth. It was also evident a change in the lipid profile of cell suspensions, increasing middle and long chain fatty acids proportion, which are unusual to those reported in seeds; thus implying that it is possible to modify lipid profiles according to the treatment used. According to the results of sucrose gradients and enzyme assays performed, it is proposed that cacao cells probably use the pentose phosphate pathway, mitochondria being the key organelle in the carbon flux for the synthesis of reductant power and fatty acid precursors.
Pub.: 25 Nov '16, Pinned: 01 Dec '16
Abstract: The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested. The results reveal that the lubrication of molten chocolate is strongly influenced by the presence of solid sugar particles and cocoa solids. The entrainment of particles into the contact zone between the interacting surfaces reduces friction such that the maximum friction coefficient measured for chocolate boluses is much lower than those for single-phase Newtonian fluids. The addition of whole human saliva or a substitute aqueous phase (PBS) to molten chocolate dissolves sugar and decreases the viscosity of molten chocolate so that thinner films are achieved. However, saliva is more lubricating than PBS, which results in lower friction coefficients for chocolate–saliva mixtures when compared to chocolate–PBS mixtures. A comparison of ex vivo and in vitro boluses also suggests that the quantity of saliva added and uniformity of mixing during oral processing affect bolus structure, which leads to differences in measured friction. It is hypothesized that inhomogeneous mixing in the mouth introduces large air bubbles and regions of non-emulsified fat into the ex vivo boluses, which enhance wetting and lubrication.
Pub.: 22 Nov '16, Pinned: 29 Nov '16
Abstract: We evaluated ethylcellulose (EC) copolymers with different mean molecular weights (MMWs) dissolved in medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil on the rheological and crystallization parameters of molten chocolate and cocoa butter. Rheology tests showed that EC induced a dose-dependent increase in yield value and viscosity, whereas MCT mainly induced a reduction in the yield value. By adjusting the EC concentration in the mixture, it was possible to control the rheological parameters of molten chocolate. X-ray diffraction showed that at the low proportions used to modify the rheological parameters (up to 0.2% EC and 1.9% MCT), EC–MCT did not affect the crystallization of cocoa butter, which remained in the β-V polymorph. The effects observed did not show a direct dependence on the MMW of EC, suggesting that the modification of the rheological parameters is mostly thermodynamic (because of its surface activity) rather than kinetic (because of an increase in viscosity).
Pub.: 08 Nov '16, Pinned: 14 Nov '16
Abstract: Abstract Palm sugar is highly produced and patronised in the south-eastern part of Asia, e.g. Indonesia which is also the world’s third largest cocoa producer. Recently, interest in palm sugar sweetened chocolate and better approaches for production methods that can be easily applied in developing countries are rising. This work investigated the influence of palm sugar on the quality attributes of dark chocolate in terms of fineness, rheological behaviour and aroma profile compared to that of sucrose. Furthermore, a small-scale processing approach using the combination of Stephan mixer and ball mill compared to the conventional method was investigated. The results showed that palm sugar sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher viscosity, a higher particle volume fraction and a higher degree of particle agglomeration due to its relatively high moisture and presence of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, chocolates sweetened with palm sugar displayed a distinctive aroma profile with the abundant presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and pyrazine-based compounds. Applying the alternative processing method leaded to the production of chocolate with rather high degree of agglomeration and viscosity as compared to chocolate produced by means of conventional processing. Moreover, the alternative processing method resulted in the presence of myrcene, β-trans-ocimene and isoamyl acetate which were not observed in the conventionally produced chocolates. The alternative processing method, however, seems to have potential for small-scale production of dark chocolate sweetened with palm sugar.AbstractPalm sugar is highly produced and patronised in the south-eastern part of Asia, e.g. Indonesia which is also the world’s third largest cocoa producer. Recently, interest in palm sugar sweetened chocolate and better approaches for production methods that can be easily applied in developing countries are rising. This work investigated the influence of palm sugar on the quality attributes of dark chocolate in terms of fineness, rheological behaviour and aroma profile compared to that of sucrose. Furthermore, a small-scale processing approach using the combination of Stephan mixer and ball mill compared to the conventional method was investigated. The results showed that palm sugar sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher viscosity, a higher particle volume fraction and a higher degree of particle agglomeration due to its relatively high moisture and presence of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, chocolates sweetened with palm sugar displayed a distinctive aroma profile with the abundant presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and pyrazine-based compounds. Applying the alternative processing method leaded to the production of chocolate with rather high degree of agglomeration and viscosity as compared to chocolate produced by means of conventional processing. Moreover, the alternative processing method resulted in the presence of myrcene, β-trans-ocimene and isoamyl acetate which were not observed in the conventionally produced chocolates. The alternative processing method, however, seems to have potential for small-scale production of dark chocolate sweetened with palm sugar.trans
Pub.: 03 Nov '16, Pinned: 10 Nov '16
Abstract: The consumption of diet products has increased greatly in recent years. The objectives of the study were to develop a bittersweet chocolate added inulin and stevias with different rebaudioside A contents (60%, 80%, and 97%). Five chocolate samples were formulated with different sucrose concentrations to determine the ideal sucrose concentration for bittersweet chocolate. The use of just-about-right scale identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 47.5% (w/w). The sweetness equivalence in sugar-free bittersweet chocolates was determined by the time-intensity method by 14 selected and trained judges. The data collected during each session of sensory evaluation furnished the following parameters in relation to the sweet stimulus: Imax (maximum intensity recorded), Timax (time at which the maximum intensity was recorded), Area (area of time × intensity curve), and Ttot (total duration time of the stimulus). The time-intensity analysis indicated that the percentages of rebaudioside A did not interfere with the sweetness intensity of the sweetener stevia in bittersweet chocolate and there was no significant difference in the concentrations tested (0.16%, 0.22%, 0.27%) of each stevia, in relation to the parameters evaluated. In addition, the reduction in fat content did not alter the perception of the sweetness intensity of the samples. These results showed important information to research and development of chocolate products. Therefore, the use of the lowest stevia concentration tested (0.16%) is the most indicated for use, since this quantity was sufficient to reach the ideal sweetness of the product, so there was no point in adding more.
Pub.: 05 Nov '16, Pinned: 07 Nov '16
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Food Structure Author(s): Hanna Dahlenborg , Anna Millqvist-Fureby , Björn Bergenståhl This study investigated the influence of shell microstructure on oil migration and fat bloom development in chocolate model systems. The microstructure of the model shells was varied by means of tempering or seeding cocoa butter and the addition of non-fat particles. Further, the impact of different storage conditions was studied. By using a set of novel analytical techniques the migration rate could be connected to the development of fat bloom at the surface. The non-seeded cocoa butter samples showed significantly higher rate of migration together with the highest rate of developed fat bloom, whereas the over-seeded cocoa butter samples showed low migration rate and low rate of fat bloom development. Addition of particles (sugar, cocoa powder and defatted cocoa powder) proved to have a significant impact on the microstructure, since these samples showed a substantially higher rate of migration and fat bloom development compared to seeded cocoa butter samples. Molecular diffusion could not explain the migration behaviour, thus, convective flow is suggested as an important contribution in addition to the molecular diffusion. Graphical abstract
Pub.: 13 Jun '15, Pinned: 07 Nov '16
Abstract: The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ingredients in chocolate (cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, sucrose, milk powder) and tempering on electrohydrodynamic spraying quality. As cocoa butter increased, the droplet size generally decreased, because the viscosity decreased. As cocoa liquor increased, the droplet size and resistivity decreased and then increased, while the viscosity only decreased. Similarly, as sucrose decreased and milk powder correspondingly increased, the droplet size decreased, because the resistivity decreased, but the viscosity did not change. The droplet size and viscosity of chocolate increased during tempering, but the resistivity did not change.
Pub.: 02 Nov '16, Pinned: 07 Nov '16
Abstract: Agribusinesses use credence claims reporting the sustainability of products and supply chains. One example, fair trade, relies on a diverse set of third party standards and certification organizations. Food marketing data are used to compare products launched between 1999 and 2013 in the coffee, tea, and chocolate categories. Out of 3,257 observations making a reference to fair trade, 2,745 were certified. The other items follow certain fair trade practices or support fair trade. Many products claim both fair trade and organic (congruent claim). Fairtrade Labeling Organizations – International (FLO-I) certifiers dominate, but Fair Trade USA (breaking from FLO-I in 2012) is important. A double hurdle hedonic regression model explores the relationship between claims and suggested retail price in the United States, Canada, and European Union over two periods (1999–2011 and 2012–2013). Two models are run, one aggregating non-FLO-I members and one accounting for each individual certifier. The models (first hurdle) are not able to identify factors explaining which products are certified. Results suggest (second hurdle) that after controlling for congruent claims, having a fair trade claim certified by certain third parties significantly raises the price (above an uncertified product). In particular FLO-I certification leads to a higher price in all models in both periods. Conversely, there is a range of premia for non-FLO-I certifiers, not all statistically significant. Implications for stakeholders are advanced. [EconLit citations: D40, L15, L66].
Pub.: 01 Oct '16, Pinned: 03 Nov '16
Abstract: Chocolate manufacturing involves steps during which molten mass is prepared to be converted in a solid with selected textural and melting properties which are vital for the consumer’s acceptance. A central element in this behavior is the continuous oily phase (cocoa butter), in which solid particles like sucrose and cocoa solids, refined to a selected particle size are dispersed and stabilized. Emulsifiers are important in particle coating and modify the viscosity of chocolate mass to give it adequate flowability during manufacturing. Furthermore, these molecules should not hinder the appearing of β-V polymorph during chocolate solidification.
Pub.: 24 Oct '16, Pinned: 25 Oct '16
Abstract: There has been a recent growth of interest in determining whether sound (specifically music and soundscapes) can enhance not only the basic taste attributes associated with food and beverage items (such as sweetness, bitterness, sourness, etc.), but also other important components of the tasting experience, such as, for instance, crunchiness, creaminess, and/or carbonation. In the present study, participants evaluated the perceived creaminess of chocolate. Two contrasting soundtracks were produced with such texture-correspondences in mind, and validated by means of a pre-test. The participants tasted the same chocolate twice (without knowing that the chocolates were identical), each time listening to one of the soundtracks. The ‘creamy’ soundtrack enhanced the perceived creaminess and sweetness of the chocolates, as compared to the ratings given while listening to the ‘rough’ soundtrack. Moreover, while the participants preferred the creamy soundtrack, this difference did not appear to affect their overall enjoyment of the chocolates. Interestingly, and in contrast with previous similar studies, these results demonstrate that in certain cases, sounds can have a perceptual effect on gustatory food attributes without necessarily altering the hedonic experience.
Pub.: 23 Oct '16, Pinned: 24 Oct '16
Abstract: Publication date: 10 January 2017 Source:Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 141 Author(s): Adriana Reis de Andrade Silva, Amanda Sodré Bioto, Priscilla Efraim, Guilherme de Castilho Queiroz Currently, food market appeal for sustainable and/or organic agriculture have grown worldwide as a way of promoting sustainable development. Brazil has developed sustainability projects (certification as organic, sustainable farming certified by Rainforest Alliance, products with designation of origin, among others) in the cocoa and chocolate industry, once the country stands out as one of the largest producers of cocoa. Labeling is an important tool for consumer's perception of sustainability and quality of a product. In this context, this study aimed to investigate the impact of sustainability labeling (seal and/or indication of organic, origin and quality, and Sustainable Agriculture) on purchase intention and quality perception of products labeled by the quality and sustainability criteria. The study was conducted with Brazilian consumers. Six dark chocolate samples with quality seals containing different percentages of cocoa were investigated. A blind test was carried out in the first evaluation session, and in the second session, all judges were informed about the percentage of cocoa and the label of each sample. The results demonstrated an influence of quality and sustainability labeling on the sensory acceptance of the product. However, the sensory attributes such as flavor were very important to consumer behavior. These results can contribute to value-added approaches to the cocoa/chocolate chain. The sensory quality of the chocolates associated with environmental and quality labeling are important for this sector, provided that there is understanding of environmental labels by consumers and sensory consumer satisfaction. This study can support the development of cocoa and chocolate chain through information and knowledge on the influence of the quality and sustainability labeling in cocoa and chocolate to assist the actions of producers and companies.
Pub.: 14 Sep '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16
Abstract: The development of genetically modified foods, but also the use of therefrom produced ingredients in food manufacturing raises uncertainties and concerns in both producers and consumers. Lecithin from soy beans, which is most frequently used to modify the flow behavior of chocolate masses, is a prominent example of such an ingredient. In this study, lecithin of different origin, namely from soy bean, sunflower, or canola seeds, was incorporated into lecithin-free masses of white and milk chocolate. The resulting products were analyzed with respect to flow behavior (molten masses), and hardness and color (solidified products); only negligible effects on these parameters were observed. A series of sensory experiments, aiming at detecting whether differences in taste and acceptance caused by the lecithin source exist, revealed that consumers were not able to distinguish between chocolates made with lecithin from different sources. Analyzing the attitudes of 161 subjects toward genetically modified foods revealed a general scepticism, especially as concerns long-term environmental and health effects.Practical applications: The results obtained by physical analysis of chocolate and the results from acceptance testing are promising for chocolate producers who intend to replace soy lecithin by sunflower or canola lecithin. The lecithin source exhibited only a minor influence on viscosity, hardness, and color of white and milk chocolate, and consumers were not able to differentiate between chocolate with different lecithin. The results indicate that using sunflower or canola lecithin in chocolate production may be a successful approach for chocolate producers to meet consumers concerns regarding ingredients from genetically modified plants.Soy lecithin is the most commonly used flow enhancer in chocolate manufacture. Physical and sensory analysis shows that lecithin from sunflower or canola seeds may be used in a similar concentration without affecting physical or sensory properties of the resulting chocolates.
Pub.: 17 Oct '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16
Abstract: The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of cocoa beans and chocolate produced from spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of different cocoa varieties were evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as conventional methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), was used to determine TAC and TPC. Chocolate showed higher (p < 0.05) theobromine content (> 6 g/kg), TPC (47.17–57.16 mg GAE/g) and TAC (1.66–2.33 mM TE/g and 8.86–11.35 mM TE/g as measured by DPPH and ABTS, respectively) than cocoa beans (< 6 g/kg, 6.30–26.05 mg GAE/g, 0.24–1.17 mM TE/g and 1.29–4.83 mM TE/g for theobromine content, TPC, DPPH and ABTS, respectively). Partial least square (PLS) model for infrared data showed a good calibration coefficient (R2cal > 0.94), indicating that the FTIR technique represents a fast and reliable tool to evaluate TPC and TAC in cocoa beans and chocolate.
Pub.: 17 Oct '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16
Abstract: Nuts are a common ingredient of confectionery fillings and a potential source of xerophilic fungal contamination. The present study investigated some preventive measures against fungal contaminants of chocolate confectionery fillings that are introduced by nuts. Microbiological analysis of the fungal load on a variety of nuts and their corresponding nut-based fillings indicated that walnuts, and the fillings in which they were used, were highly contaminated (>2.5 log10 CFU/g). The effect of dry and humid heating with various heating and drying cycle times was tested on walnuts. Humid heating for 3 min at 75–80 °C completely eliminated the initial fungal load, while dry heating did not induce any measurable change. According to sensorial analysis, humid heated and unprocessed walnuts tasted significantly different, with a slight indication of preference for the heated walnuts. These findings propose a thermal humid treatment as a possible solution to decontaminate walnuts. Moreover, hexanal analysis of walnuts demonstrated humid treatment to increase the oxidative stability of walnuts. This may result in a possible delayed onset of rancidity during storage, which is an additional advantage in terms of product shelf life.
Pub.: 17 Oct '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16
Abstract: Fat bloom is one of the main quality problems in the chocolate industry. A bloomed chocolate product is characterized by the loss of its initial gloss and the formation of a gray-whitish haze, which makes the product unappealing from a consumer point of view. In the industry, most of the fat bloom related problems arise in filled chocolate products, like pralines and chocolate-coated biscuits. In these products, oil migration is considered the main cause of fat bloom development. It leads to the dissolution of solid cocoa butter crystals in the chocolate shell which may recrystallize with the formation of undesired crystals. These give rise, upon growth, to visual fat bloom. When looking at the available literature, most of the studies elucidate the possible mechanisms of oil migration and the subsequent fat bloom formation using model systems. These model systems are sometimes too distant from the real industrial applications and the important role of the microstructure of the products are often neglected, although it plays a crucial role in migration-induced fat bloom development. The main objective of this review is to describe the relationships between chocolate microstructure, oil migration, and fat bloom.Practical applications: This review can be used as a base for the development of microstructural strategies to retard oil migration and fat bloom development in filled chocolates. An important strategy to retard oil migration and migration-induced fat bloom is the creation of more dense structures. By creating denser structures, the overall mobility is reduced leading to a decrease in the rate and extent of oil migration. Also, more dense structures hinder recrystallization and Ostwald ripening, thereby delaying the migration-induced fat bloom development. As fillings are less standardized and not bound by legislation, modification of the filling composition and microstructure offers more opportunities in delaying fat bloom.The main objective of the review is to describe the relationships between chocolate microstructure, oil migration, and fat bloom, as illustrated in this scheme. The numbers indicate the four parts that are discussed in this review.
Pub.: 17 Oct '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16
Abstract: In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control.Peanut skins are currently a waste product of the blanching process of the peanut industry. They contain high levels of small phenolic type compounds that showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Encapsulation and spray drying of peanut skin extracts with maltodextrin produces a bioactive powder that can increase the antioxidant properties of milk chocolate above that of dark chocolate without increasing the bitter flavor. Consumers found the antioxidant fortified milk chocolate to have acceptable flavor. This will allow for a value-added use of peanut skins.
Pub.: 13 Oct '16, Pinned: 17 Oct '16
Abstract: The fermentation of cocoa beans is essential for the generation of flavour precursors that are required later on to form the flavour components of chocolate. From the many different precursors that are generated, oligopeptides and free amino acids comprise a significant proportion as some of them form Maillard reaction products during the roasting process. Therefore, the diversity of peptides is an important contributing factor to the quality of a fermentation which is in turn controlled by proteolytic activity within the cocoa bean, and is driven by changes in the presence of fermentation by-products as a result of microbial activity outside the bean. Being able to control proteolytic activity within the bean using only the presence of fermentation by-products would prove a valuable tool in the study of these proteases and the processing of cocoa storage proteins. Thus, this tool would help elucidate key mechanisms that generate the components responsible for flavour. In this study, we describe an artificial fermentation system, free from microbial activity, which is able to replicate proteolytic degradation of protein as well as to generate similar peptide fragments as seen during a commercial fermentation. It was also found that acidification is a main contributor to protein degradation.
Pub.: 12 Oct '16, Pinned: 17 Oct '16
Abstract: Semisweet chocolate pleases a broad range of consumers, but it is an underexplored food matrix among probiotic products. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate semisweet chocolate as a vehicle for probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA3 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1). The chocolates were evaluated by aw, pH, surface color and morphology, hardness, microbiological quality, sensorial acceptance and probiotic viability. Besides, probiotic survival in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF/SIF) was evaluated before and after application in chocolate. Samples presented pH values around 6 and aw below 0.6. Free probiotics populations were reduced after exposure to SGF/SIF, while no significant reduction was detected in probiotic populations incorporated into chocolate. After 120 days of storage at 25 °C, probiotic populations in chocolate were reduced by only 1.4 and 0.7 logarithmic cycles, respectively. Considering these results and that all samples were very well accepted by panelists, semisweet chocolate can be considered a good vehicle for probiotics.
Pub.: 11 Oct '16, Pinned: 17 Oct '16
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