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Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius] and maca [Lepidium meyenii].

Abstract: In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using the k-means.After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group, it is obtained R(2)ajusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kgwheat .kg(-1)total flour , 0.37 kgyacon .kg(-1)total flour , 0.14 kgmaca .kg(-1)total flour and 140.0 mL water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kgwheat .kg(-1)total flour , 0.65 kgyacon .kg(-1)total flour and 120.0 mL water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kgmaca .kg(-1)total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data was evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA).It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified the brownness and the burnt aroma and taste. Meanwhile, a larger proportion of yacon produced better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor.

Pub.: 13 Jan '17, Pinned: 16 Jan '17

Mathematical Modeling and Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Oil Migration in Chocolate Confectionery Systems

Abstract: Abstract Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Several factors such as contact area, ratio of the two fat phases, type of the fat, solid fat content, presence of non-fat solid particles, particle size, viscosity, structure, concentration gradient of triacylglycerols (TAGs), and storage temperature have all effect on migration rate. Mechanism of oil migration has still not been clearly understood, but possible mechanisms have been suggested and studied in the literature. Diffusion mechanism was demonstrated and modeled in many studies. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covers the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also includes a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI.AbstractOil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Several factors such as contact area, ratio of the two fat phases, type of the fat, solid fat content, presence of non-fat solid particles, particle size, viscosity, structure, concentration gradient of triacylglycerols (TAGs), and storage temperature have all effect on migration rate. Mechanism of oil migration has still not been clearly understood, but possible mechanisms have been suggested and studied in the literature. Diffusion mechanism was demonstrated and modeled in many studies. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covers the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also includes a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI.

Pub.: 21 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Jan '17

Discrimination of Cocoa Bean Origin by Chocolate Polyphenol Chromatographic Analysis and Chemometrics

Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, the traceability and origin authentification in foodstuff is of great interest for consumers and industries. It is proved that the chemical composition is linked to the geographical and varietal origin of food products. Cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, provides a lot of polyphenol compounds still present in the chocolate bars. By analyzing these chemical species, we aim to investigate the information about the country of origin of chocolate. Our method is based on an acetone/water liquid/liquid extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-DAD-MS). Forty-seven chocolate samples of different varieties (Criollo, Trinitario, Nacional, and Forastero) from 12 countries within two continents were analyzed. Polyphenols such as catechin, epicatechin, and several of procyanidins’ polymers were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 21 variables: 20 polyphenols and the polyphenol total content. The results highlight that the polyphenolic profile allows to classify the chocolate samples according to geographical origins (Madagascar, Caribbean, different countries from South America and Africa) as well as their variety.AbstractNowadays, the traceability and origin authentification in foodstuff is of great interest for consumers and industries. It is proved that the chemical composition is linked to the geographical and varietal origin of food products. Cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, provides a lot of polyphenol compounds still present in the chocolate bars. By analyzing these chemical species, we aim to investigate the information about the country of origin of chocolate. Our method is based on an acetone/water liquid/liquid extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-DAD-MS). Forty-seven chocolate samples of different varieties (Criollo, Trinitario, Nacional, and Forastero) from 12 countries within two continents were analyzed. Polyphenols such as catechin, epicatechin, and several of procyanidins’ polymers were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 21 variables: 20 polyphenols and the polyphenol total content. The results highlight that the polyphenolic profile allows to classify the chocolate samples according to geographical origins (Madagascar, Caribbean, different countries from South America and Africa) as well as their variety.

Pub.: 26 Dec '16, Pinned: 16 Jan '17

Influence of Cocoa Hybrids on Volatile Compounds of Fermented Beans, Microbial Diversity during Fermentation and Sensory Characteristics and Acceptance of Chocolates

Abstract: Microbial diversity, final concentration of volatiles compounds during fermentation and the characterization and acceptability of chocolates of three cocoa hybrids (PH 9, PH 15 and PH 16) were evaluated. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia caribbica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the predominant yeasts in the three fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Bacillus cereus and Lysinibacillus fusiformis were the common bacterial species isolated from the fermentations. The PH 9 hybrid showed highest diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Twenty-seven volatile compounds were identified during the cocoa fermentation of all hybrids. Chocolate from PH 9 hybrid had most desirable flavors and obtained the most ideal score in acceptance test. Chocolate from PH 15 hybrid was considered the most bitter, acidic and astringent. Chocolates produced by different cocoa hybrids showed differences in sensory attributes and acceptance. Therefore, special management is required for the different hybrid fermentations to obtain high-quality chocolate.As a solution to the recovery of the cocoa crop in Brazil, many hybrids resistant to the disease called “witches’ broom” were developed, but the impact of these crosses on cocoa quality, consequently in chocolate is not known. The producers’ cooperatives and farmers of cocoa have no technical or scientific information about the behavior of cocoa hybrids during spontaneous fermentation process, which, oftentimes give rise to an uncontrolled fermentation of cocoa hybrids mixture. The results of this paper could be used among the producers’ cooperatives and cocoa farmers for guidance about the influence of genetic improvement on the quality of cocoa fermented beans and chocolates, particularly among the three hybrids evaluated in this study.

Pub.: 02 Dec '16, Pinned: 05 Dec '16

Comparison of the crystallization behaviors of different types of cocoa butters and chocolates

Abstract: Nucleation and crystal growth rate of cocoa butters (CBs) and fats from chocolates with different compositions were studied and compared. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to determine the isothermal crystallization kinetics of these fat samples. Crystallization behaviors of the studied CBs and five different chocolate types: dark (DCh43%), white (WCh), and milk (MCh25%, MCh27%, MCh30%) were tested at two different isothermal temperatures, namely, 0°C and 20°C. The fatty acid composition and temperature affect the crystallization kinetics of CBs and chocolates. The crystallization kinetic parameters were calculated by using the Foubert model. The Foubert model revealed the best fit for all studied fat samples (R2 = 0.8951–0.9973). The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used for discrimination of similarities and differences of the studied CBs and chocolates based on their fatty acid compositions and crystallization behaviors.Quality and acceptability of confectionery products produced from cocoa depend on chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter. Therefore, the kinetics of fat crystallization is important for controlling operations in the confectionery industry to produce the desired products. For this reason the crystallization kinetics of different cocoa butters and various types of chocolates were observed by means of changes in solid fat content as a function of time and described using Foubert model.

Pub.: 01 Nov '16, Pinned: 05 Dec '16

Cocoa fermentation: Microbial identification by MALDI-TOF MS, and sensory evaluation of produced chocolates

Abstract: Dynamic microbial over the cocoa fermentation using starter culture and the effect sensory characteristics of chocolate produced were investigated. The cocoa fermentation inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA0681 and Lactobacillus fermentum UFLA CHBB 8.12 as starter cultures were assessed, and compared with spontaneous fermentation. The microbial succession was identified using polyphasic approach including classical morphological and biochemical assays, and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Overall 873 colonies were isolated, 445 (51%) strains were isolated from the spontaneous fermentation, while 428 (49%) strains were isolated from the inoculated fermentation. The dominant yeast in both fermentation processes were S. cerevisiae and Candida magnolia. L. fermentum and Pediococcus acidilactici were detected in both fermentations, whereas L. coryniformis, L. curvatus, L. mali, L. plantarum, and L. sakei were isolated from the spontaneous fermentation only. Acinetobacter sp., Gluconobacter oxydans, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were isolated from both the fermentation processes. Chocolate produced from the spontaneous fermentative process presented dominance of the bitter flavour, while obtained through inoculated fermentation process presented bitter, astringent and acid as dominant flavours. Cocoa inoculation with S. cerevisiae and L. fermentum affected the sensory quality of the produced chocolate. The microbial inoculation influenced on fermentation and therefore the final product.

Pub.: 28 Nov '16, Pinned: 01 Dec '16

Biochemical precursor effects on the fatty acid production in cell suspension cultures of Theobroma cacao L.

Abstract: Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture. It was found that biotin stimulated fatty acid synthesis without altering cell viability and cell growth. It was also evident a change in the lipid profile of cell suspensions, increasing middle and long chain fatty acids proportion, which are unusual to those reported in seeds; thus implying that it is possible to modify lipid profiles according to the treatment used. According to the results of sucrose gradients and enzyme assays performed, it is proposed that cacao cells probably use the pentose phosphate pathway, mitochondria being the key organelle in the carbon flux for the synthesis of reductant power and fatty acid precursors.

Pub.: 25 Nov '16, Pinned: 01 Dec '16

Lubrication of chocolate during oral processing

Abstract: The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested. The results reveal that the lubrication of molten chocolate is strongly influenced by the presence of solid sugar particles and cocoa solids. The entrainment of particles into the contact zone between the interacting surfaces reduces friction such that the maximum friction coefficient measured for chocolate boluses is much lower than those for single-phase Newtonian fluids. The addition of whole human saliva or a substitute aqueous phase (PBS) to molten chocolate dissolves sugar and decreases the viscosity of molten chocolate so that thinner films are achieved. However, saliva is more lubricating than PBS, which results in lower friction coefficients for chocolate–saliva mixtures when compared to chocolate–PBS mixtures. A comparison of ex vivo and in vitro boluses also suggests that the quantity of saliva added and uniformity of mixing during oral processing affect bolus structure, which leads to differences in measured friction. It is hypothesized that inhomogeneous mixing in the mouth introduces large air bubbles and regions of non-emulsified fat into the ex vivo boluses, which enhance wetting and lubrication.

Pub.: 22 Nov '16, Pinned: 29 Nov '16

Feasibility of a small-scale production system approach for palm sugar sweetened dark chocolate

Abstract: Abstract Palm sugar is highly produced and patronised in the south-eastern part of Asia, e.g. Indonesia which is also the world’s third largest cocoa producer. Recently, interest in palm sugar sweetened chocolate and better approaches for production methods that can be easily applied in developing countries are rising. This work investigated the influence of palm sugar on the quality attributes of dark chocolate in terms of fineness, rheological behaviour and aroma profile compared to that of sucrose. Furthermore, a small-scale processing approach using the combination of Stephan mixer and ball mill compared to the conventional method was investigated. The results showed that palm sugar sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher viscosity, a higher particle volume fraction and a higher degree of particle agglomeration due to its relatively high moisture and presence of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, chocolates sweetened with palm sugar displayed a distinctive aroma profile with the abundant presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and pyrazine-based compounds. Applying the alternative processing method leaded to the production of chocolate with rather high degree of agglomeration and viscosity as compared to chocolate produced by means of conventional processing. Moreover, the alternative processing method resulted in the presence of myrcene, β-trans-ocimene and isoamyl acetate which were not observed in the conventionally produced chocolates. The alternative processing method, however, seems to have potential for small-scale production of dark chocolate sweetened with palm sugar.AbstractPalm sugar is highly produced and patronised in the south-eastern part of Asia, e.g. Indonesia which is also the world’s third largest cocoa producer. Recently, interest in palm sugar sweetened chocolate and better approaches for production methods that can be easily applied in developing countries are rising. This work investigated the influence of palm sugar on the quality attributes of dark chocolate in terms of fineness, rheological behaviour and aroma profile compared to that of sucrose. Furthermore, a small-scale processing approach using the combination of Stephan mixer and ball mill compared to the conventional method was investigated. The results showed that palm sugar sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher viscosity, a higher particle volume fraction and a higher degree of particle agglomeration due to its relatively high moisture and presence of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, chocolates sweetened with palm sugar displayed a distinctive aroma profile with the abundant presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and pyrazine-based compounds. Applying the alternative processing method leaded to the production of chocolate with rather high degree of agglomeration and viscosity as compared to chocolate produced by means of conventional processing. Moreover, the alternative processing method resulted in the presence of myrcene, β-trans-ocimene and isoamyl acetate which were not observed in the conventionally produced chocolates. The alternative processing method, however, seems to have potential for small-scale production of dark chocolate sweetened with palm sugar.trans

Pub.: 03 Nov '16, Pinned: 10 Nov '16

The Influence of the Rebaudioside A Content of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) on the Determination of Sweetness Equivalence in Bittersweet Chocolates, Using the Time-Intensity Analysis.

Abstract: The consumption of diet products has increased greatly in recent years. The objectives of the study were to develop a bittersweet chocolate added inulin and stevias with different rebaudioside A contents (60%, 80%, and 97%). Five chocolate samples were formulated with different sucrose concentrations to determine the ideal sucrose concentration for bittersweet chocolate. The use of just-about-right scale identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 47.5% (w/w). The sweetness equivalence in sugar-free bittersweet chocolates was determined by the time-intensity method by 14 selected and trained judges. The data collected during each session of sensory evaluation furnished the following parameters in relation to the sweet stimulus: Imax (maximum intensity recorded), Timax (time at which the maximum intensity was recorded), Area (area of time × intensity curve), and Ttot (total duration time of the stimulus). The time-intensity analysis indicated that the percentages of rebaudioside A did not interfere with the sweetness intensity of the sweetener stevia in bittersweet chocolate and there was no significant difference in the concentrations tested (0.16%, 0.22%, 0.27%) of each stevia, in relation to the parameters evaluated. In addition, the reduction in fat content did not alter the perception of the sweetness intensity of the samples. These results showed important information to research and development of chocolate products. Therefore, the use of the lowest stevia concentration tested (0.16%) is the most indicated for use, since this quantity was sufficient to reach the ideal sweetness of the product, so there was no point in adding more.

Pub.: 05 Nov '16, Pinned: 07 Nov '16

What's in a Name? The Impact of Fair Trade Claims on Product Price

Abstract: Agribusinesses use credence claims reporting the sustainability of products and supply chains. One example, fair trade, relies on a diverse set of third party standards and certification organizations. Food marketing data are used to compare products launched between 1999 and 2013 in the coffee, tea, and chocolate categories. Out of 3,257 observations making a reference to fair trade, 2,745 were certified. The other items follow certain fair trade practices or support fair trade. Many products claim both fair trade and organic (congruent claim). Fairtrade Labeling Organizations – International (FLO-I) certifiers dominate, but Fair Trade USA (breaking from FLO-I in 2012) is important. A double hurdle hedonic regression model explores the relationship between claims and suggested retail price in the United States, Canada, and European Union over two periods (1999–2011 and 2012–2013). Two models are run, one aggregating non-FLO-I members and one accounting for each individual certifier. The models (first hurdle) are not able to identify factors explaining which products are certified. Results suggest (second hurdle) that after controlling for congruent claims, having a fair trade claim certified by certain third parties significantly raises the price (above an uncertified product). In particular FLO-I certification leads to a higher price in all models in both periods. Conversely, there is a range of premia for non-FLO-I certifiers, not all statistically significant. Implications for stakeholders are advanced. [EconLit citations: D40, L15, L66].

Pub.: 01 Oct '16, Pinned: 03 Nov '16

Impact of sustainability labeling in the perception of sensory quality and purchase intention of chocolate consumers

Abstract: Publication date: 10 January 2017 Source:Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 141 Author(s): Adriana Reis de Andrade Silva, Amanda Sodré Bioto, Priscilla Efraim, Guilherme de Castilho Queiroz Currently, food market appeal for sustainable and/or organic agriculture have grown worldwide as a way of promoting sustainable development. Brazil has developed sustainability projects (certification as organic, sustainable farming certified by Rainforest Alliance, products with designation of origin, among others) in the cocoa and chocolate industry, once the country stands out as one of the largest producers of cocoa. Labeling is an important tool for consumer's perception of sustainability and quality of a product. In this context, this study aimed to investigate the impact of sustainability labeling (seal and/or indication of organic, origin and quality, and Sustainable Agriculture) on purchase intention and quality perception of products labeled by the quality and sustainability criteria. The study was conducted with Brazilian consumers. Six dark chocolate samples with quality seals containing different percentages of cocoa were investigated. A blind test was carried out in the first evaluation session, and in the second session, all judges were informed about the percentage of cocoa and the label of each sample. The results demonstrated an influence of quality and sustainability labeling on the sensory acceptance of the product. However, the sensory attributes such as flavor were very important to consumer behavior. These results can contribute to value-added approaches to the cocoa/chocolate chain. The sensory quality of the chocolates associated with environmental and quality labeling are important for this sector, provided that there is understanding of environmental labels by consumers and sensory consumer satisfaction. This study can support the development of cocoa and chocolate chain through information and knowledge on the influence of the quality and sustainability labeling in cocoa and chocolate to assist the actions of producers and companies.

Pub.: 14 Sep '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16

Physical and sensory properties of chocolate made with lecithin of different origin

Abstract: The development of genetically modified foods, but also the use of therefrom produced ingredients in food manufacturing raises uncertainties and concerns in both producers and consumers. Lecithin from soy beans, which is most frequently used to modify the flow behavior of chocolate masses, is a prominent example of such an ingredient. In this study, lecithin of different origin, namely from soy bean, sunflower, or canola seeds, was incorporated into lecithin-free masses of white and milk chocolate. The resulting products were analyzed with respect to flow behavior (molten masses), and hardness and color (solidified products); only negligible effects on these parameters were observed. A series of sensory experiments, aiming at detecting whether differences in taste and acceptance caused by the lecithin source exist, revealed that consumers were not able to distinguish between chocolates made with lecithin from different sources. Analyzing the attitudes of 161 subjects toward genetically modified foods revealed a general scepticism, especially as concerns long-term environmental and health effects.Practical applications: The results obtained by physical analysis of chocolate and the results from acceptance testing are promising for chocolate producers who intend to replace soy lecithin by sunflower or canola lecithin. The lecithin source exhibited only a minor influence on viscosity, hardness, and color of white and milk chocolate, and consumers were not able to differentiate between chocolate with different lecithin. The results indicate that using sunflower or canola lecithin in chocolate production may be a successful approach for chocolate producers to meet consumers concerns regarding ingredients from genetically modified plants.Soy lecithin is the most commonly used flow enhancer in chocolate manufacture. Physical and sensory analysis shows that lecithin from sunflower or canola seeds may be used in a similar concentration without affecting physical or sensory properties of the resulting chocolates.

Pub.: 17 Oct '16, Pinned: 19 Oct '16