I am a Ph.D. student in polymer engineering at Case Western Reserve University.
Multilayer films serve as dielectrics for high electric constant and low loss film capacitors
Polymer materials are now a everwhere in our lifes! With recent developments, polymer film capacitors become increasingly important for advanced power applications such as DC-link capacitors in electric/hybrid vechicles, defribrillators and pulsed power. "State-of-the-art" biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is the most commonly used commercial capacitor film. BOPP film has the advantage of high breakdown strength, and extremely low loss. However, its low operating temperature (up to 85°C), low dielectric constant (2.25) limit its use in applications requiring high temperature operation and compact design. Therefore researchers are working hard to develop polymer films with high dielectric constant, low loss and high operation temperature. However, it's a delimma that polymers with high dielectric constant (e.g. Polyvinylidene fluoride, nylon) usually have high loss, whereas linear dielectrics (e.g. Polycabobate, polysulfone) with low loss ofen have low dielectric constant. At Case Western Reserve University , we multilayer coextrude a high breakdown strength linear dielectric material and high dielectric constant material, which combines materials' good properties.The obtained nanolayered polymer films also have interfacial polarization that could enhance the insulation property of polymer films.
Abstract: High dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are desirable electrical properties for next-generation polymer dielectrics that show promise for applications in pulsed power, power electronics, and printable electronics. Unfortunately, the dielectric constant of polymers is often limited to 2–5, much lower than that of inorganic dielectrics, because of the nature of hydrocarbon covalent bonds for electronic and atomic polarizations. It is essential to understand the fundamental physics of different types of polarization and the associated loss mechanisms in polymers. In this Perspective, we discuss the characteristics of each polarization and explain how to enhance the polarization using rational molecular designs without causing significant dielectric losses. Among various approaches for high dielectric constant and low loss polymers, the multilayer film technology is of particular interest because a multilayer film is a unique one-dimensional system with tailored material choices, layer thicknesses, and interfaces. By minimizing the disadvantageous polarizations and enhancing the advantageous polarizations, multilayer films hold promise as advanced dielectrics for future polymer film capacitors.
Pub.: 17 Feb '17, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Polymer dielectrics having high dielectric constant, high temperature capability, and low loss are attractive for a broad range of applications such as film capacitors, gate dielectrics, artificial muscles, and electrocaloric cooling. Unfortunately, it is generally observed that higher polarization or dielectric constant tends to cause significantly enhanced dielectric loss. It is therefore highly desired that the fundamental physics of all types of polarization and loss mechanisms be thoroughly understood for dielectric polymers. In this Perspective, we intend to explore advantages and disadvantages for different types of polarization. Among a number of approaches, dipolar polarization is promising for high dielectric constant and low loss polymer dielectrics, if the dipolar relaxation peak can be pushed to above the gigahertz range. In particular, dipolar glass, paraelectric, and relaxor ferroelectric polymers are discussed for the dipolar polarization approach.
Pub.: 19 Aug '15, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based homopolymers and copolymers are attractive for a broad range of electroactive applications because of their high dielectric constants. Especially, biaxially oriented PVDF (BOPVDF) films exhibit a DC breakdown strength as high as that for biaxially oriented polypropylene films. In this work, we revealed the molecular origin of the high dielectric constant via study of a commercial BOPVDF film. By determination of the dielectric constant for the amorphous phase in BOPVDF, a high value of ca. 21-22 at 25 °C was obtained, and a three-phase (i.e., lamellar crystal/oriented interphase/amorphous region) semicrystalline model was proposed to explain this result. Meanwhile, electronic conduction mechanisms in BOPVDF under high electric fields and elevated temperatures were investigated by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) spectroscopy and leakage current studies. Space charge injection from metal electrodes was identified as a major factor for electronic conduction when BOPVDF was poled above 75 °C and 20 MV/m. In addition, when silver or aluminum were used as electrodes, new ions were generated from electrochemical reactions under high fields. Due to the electrochemical reactions between PVDF and the metal electrode, a question is raised for practical electrical applications using PVDF and its copolymers under high-field and high-temperature conditions. A potential method to prevent electrochemical degradation of PVDF is proposed in this study.
Pub.: 30 Jun '15, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol.% PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm3 at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high energy density film capacitor applications.
Pub.: 11 May '16, Pinned: 28 Jun '17
Abstract: In this report, a dipolar glass polymer, poly(2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl methacrylate) (PMSEMA), was synthesized by free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylate monomer. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, PMSEMA exhibited a strong γ transition at a temperature as low as -110 °C at 1 Hz, about 220 °C below its glass transition temperature around 109 °C. Because of this strong γ dipole relaxation, the glassy PMSEMA sample exhibited a high dielectric constant of 11.4 and a low dissipation factor (tan δ) of 0.02 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. From an electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop study, PMSEMA demonstrated a high discharge energy density of 4.54 J/cm(3) at 283 MV/m, nearly 3 times that of an analogue polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). However, the hysteresis loss was only 1/3-1/2 of that for PMMA. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipolar side groups are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications.
Pub.: 19 Feb '15, Pinned: 03 Jul '17