A pinboard by
Solomon Olorunleke

Assistant Lecturer, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki


improving the reproductive performance of the indigenous muturu breed of cow in Nigeria

Ovsynch protocol has been used in cattle to synchronize ovulation and facilitate fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) but its efficacy has not been evaluated in the Nigerian Muturu breed of Bos indicus cattle. The effects of a modified Ovsynch protocol (addition of progesterone, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and modification of time for AI) upon the reproductive performance of Muturu cows were therefore studied. The study was conducted at Abakiliki in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Muturu cows (n=100) were selected for the study based on their previous calving history and the presence of follicle of greater than 5 mm diameter. Cows were then allotted to untreated and treated groups (n=50 each). Synchronization was by an Ovsynch regimen (Day 0: 100 µg GnRH, Day 7: 500 µg PGF2α (Ovuprost), Day 10: 100 µg GnRH), augmented by a progesterone-releasing intravaginal insert (CIDR) between Days 0 and 7, and 400 IU eCG (Norvomon) on Day 7. Untreated animals were monitored over two consecutive oestrous cycles and examined daily for the presence of oestrus over a period of 49 days. All animals in the treated group displayed oestrus after synchronization while that untreated displayed oestrus during the 49-day study period. Ovarian ultrasonography to ascertain follicle size was performed at the onset and end of oestrus in the untreated), and on Days 0, 7 and 10 in the treated group. Follicle size (18 ± 0.4 mm versus 12± 0.2 mm), ovulation rate (100% versus 64%) and duration of oestrus (54 h versus19 h) for treated and untreated group varied significantly. Cows in the treated group displayed 46% multiple ovulations, compared with none in the untreated group and this may be attributed to the effect of eCG. It was therefore concluded that the modified Ovsynch protocol produced synchrony of oestrus, ovulation and improved follicle size in Muturu breed of cattle, therefore it can be adopted for breeding programs.


Effect of extending the interval from Presynch to initiation of Ovsynch in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol on fertility of timed artificial insemination services in lactating dairy cows.

Abstract: The specific objective of this study was to determine if increasing the interval between the Presynch and Ovsynch portion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (Presynch: PGF2α-14 d-PGF2α and Ovsynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16-20 h-timed artificial insemination) from 12 to 14 d would reduce the fertility of lactating dairy cows not detected in estrus after Presynch that receive timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows from 4 commercial dairy farms (n=3,165) were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to a 12 (PSOv14-12; n=1,566) or 14 d (PSOv14-14; n=1,599) interval between the second PGF2α (PGF) injection of Presynch (P2) and the beginning of Ovsynch. Cows detected in estrus any time between P2 and the day of the TAI were inseminated (AIED group). From a subgroup of cows (177 and 150 in PSOv14-12 and PSOv14-14, respectively), ovarian parameters and ovulation were evaluated through determination of concentrations of progesterone (P4) in blood and transrectal ultrasonography at the time of the first GnRH (GnRH1) and the PGF injection of Ovsynch. Overall, 52.8% (n=1,671) of the cows were AIED, whereas 47.2% (n=1,494) received TAI. For cows that received TAI, pregnancies per artificial insemination 39 d after artificial insemination were similar for PSOv14-12 (36.3%) and PSOv14-14 (36.0%) but were greater for primiparous (41.5%) than multiparous cows (33.6%). Pregnancy loss from 39 to 105 d after artificial insemination was similar for PSOv14-12 (4.8%) and PSOv14-14 (8.6%), for primiparous (6.4%) and multiparous cows (7.0%), but a tendency for a treatment by parity interaction was observed. Both treatments had a similar proportion of cows with a follicle ≥ 10 mm and similar follicle size at GnRH1; however, the ovulatory response to GnRH was greater for PSOv14-12 (62.2%) than PSOv14-14 (46.4%). A greater proportion of cows with a functional corpus luteum (75.3 vs. 65.6%) and greater concentrations of P4 (3.9 vs. 3.3 ng/mL) at GnRH1 in PSOv14-14 than PSOv14-12 may have compensated for the reduction in fertility expected due to reduced ovulatory response to GnRH1. We concluded that extending the interval from Presynch to Ovsynch from 12 to 14 reduced ovulatory response to GnRH1 but did not reduce the fertility of cows that received TAI when cows were inseminated in estrus after presynchronization. Thus, farms that combine AIED and TAI during the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol may use a 14-d interval between Presynch and Ovsynch to simplify their management without reducing fertility of cows receiving TAI.

Pub.: 28 Oct '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Ovarian follicular dynamics and hormones throughout the estrous cycle in Thai native (Bos indicus) heifers.

Abstract: Relatively few studies have been reported regarding the reproductive physiology of female Thai native cattle. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the follicular dynamics and concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) during the estrous cycle in Thai native heifers (TNH) and to compare obtained results with those of European and Indian cattle breeds previously reported. For the detection of estrus, ovaries of all 20 heifers were examined twice daily (12 h intervals) by ultrasonography for three consecutive estrous cycles. From data of 60 estrous cycles (n = 60 estrous cycles from 20 heifers), it was found that 14 (70%) and 6 heifers (30%) had two (42 estrous cycles collected from 14 heifers) and three follicular waves (18 estrous cycles collected from 6 heifers), respectively. The days when estrus was detected, interovulatory intervals, life-spans of corpus lutea (CL), and days for growing and regression of CLs were shorter in the two follicular waves than those in the three follicular waves (P < 0.05). In both two and thre follicular waves, larger maximum diameters and higher growth rates of the dominant follicle (DF) in an ovulatory wave were observed than those of the preceding waves without ovulation (P < 0.05). There was a progressive increase in follicular size and FSH and E2 production during follicular growth in each follicular wave. In addition, the FSH and E2 peak concentrations during the ovulatory wave were higher than those of the anovulation waves (P < 0.05). Moreover, although the ovarian follicular dynamic patterns in Thai native heifers were similar to those previously reported for European and Indian cattle breeds, the diameter of the largest preovulatory follicle (OF), subordinate follicles (SF) and CLs were smaller than those in European and Indian cattle breeds. In conclusion, when compared with European and some breeds of Indian cattle, the length of interovulatory intervals was shorter, and the sizes of dominant SF and CLs were smaller in Thai native heifers.

Pub.: 09 Jul '13, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Comparison of two estrus-synchronization protocols and timed artificial insemination in dairy cattle.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Ovsynch protocol with and without exogenous progesterone on pregnancy rate (PR) in cows in which estrous cycles were previously synchronized with 2 doses of PGF(2alpha) and that were not detected in estrus during the presynchronization period. The study was conducted in Chihuahua, Mexico (8,650 Holstein milking cows; 305-d mature equivalent milk yield = 13,790 kg). On d 47 postpartum, estrous cycles in cows were synchronized by using 2 doses of PGF(2alpha) 14 d apart. Any cow detected in estrus during this presynchronization period was inseminated. Cows not detected in estrus were selected at random and assigned to receive progesterone supplementation or to serve as controls. Controls (n = 594) were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol and cows in the progesterone supplemented treatment (n = 594) were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol plus an intravaginal insert containing 1.9 g of progesterone inserted at the time of the first GnRH injection and removed 7 d later. Progesterone-supplemented cows had a greater PR (31.2%) compared with controls (22.7%). Plasma progesterone concentrations at artificial insemination (AI) were <1 ng/mL and did not differ between treatments. At 14 d post-AI, however, more cows that received progesterone supplementation had concentrations of progesterone >1 ng/mL compared with controls. It was concluded that after a presynchronization period, cows subjected to the Ovsynch program and supplemented with exogenous progesterone had a greater PR and greater concentrations of progesterone after AI than those subjected to the Ovsynch protocol and not supplemented with progesterone.

Pub.: 16 Nov '06, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows.

Abstract: A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss (RRK+H = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.00). Service number and presynchronization did not influence the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility. In summary, progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during the timed AI program increased P/AI mostly in cows without CL and reduced the risk of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol eliminated the benefit of supplemental progesterone on P/AI.

Pub.: 05 Feb '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

An economic evaluation of estrous synchronization and timed artificial insemination in suckled beef cows.

Abstract: Partial budget analysis was used to determine the economic outcome of estrus synchronization (ES) and timed artificial insemination (TAI) in commercial cow-calf production. Suckled beef cows (n = 1,197) from 8 locations were assigned randomly within each location to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 1) cows were inseminated artificially after synchronization of ovulation using the CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, which includes a 100-μg injection of GnRH (OvaCyst; TevaAnimal Health, St. Joseph, MO) when a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) containing 1.38 g of progesterone was inserted. The CIDR was removed 7 d later, and cows received a 25-mg injection of PGF(2α) (PGF; Lutalyse; Pfizer Animal Health), followed in 66 h with TAI and a second 100-μg injection of GnRH (TAI; n = 582), and 2) cows were exposed to natural service (NS) without estrous synchronization (Control; n = 615). Within each herd, cows from both treatments were maintained together in similar pastures and were exposed to bulls 12 h after the last cow in the TAI treatment was inseminated. Overall, the percentage of cows exposed to treatments that subsequently weaned a calf was greater (P < 0.05) for TAI (84%) than Control (78%) cows. In addition, survival analysis demonstrated that cumulative calving distribution differed (P < 0.05) between the TAI and Control treatments. Weaning weights per cow exposed to treatments were greater (P < 0.01) for cows in the TAI treatment (193.4 ± 4.3 kg) than those cows in the Control treatment (175.9 ± 4.3 kg). Overall, increased returns plus decreased costs ($82.32) minus decreased returns plus increased costs ($33.18) resulted in a $49.14 advantage per exposed cow in the TAI treatment compared with the Control treatment. Location greatly influenced weaned calf weights, which may have been a result of differing management, nutrition, genetic selection, production goals, and environments. We concluded that ES and TAI had a positive economic impact on subsequent weaning weights of exposed cows.

Pub.: 16 May '12, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Equine chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone enhance fertility in a norgestomet-based, timed artificial insemination protocol in suckled Nelore (Bos indicus) cows.

Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at progestin removal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at timed artificial insemination (TAI) on ovarian follicular dynamics (Experiment 1) and pregnancy rates (Experiment 2) in suckled Nelore (Bos indicus) cows. Both experiments were 2x2 factorials (eCG or No eCG, and GnRH or No GnRH), with identical treatments. In Experiment 1, 50 anestrous cows, 134.5+/-2.3 d postpartum, received a 3mg norgestomet ear implant sc, plus 3mg norgestomet and 5mg estradiol valerate im on Day 0. The implant was removed on Day 9, with TAI 54 h later. Cows received 400 IU eCG or no further treatment on Day 9 and GnRH (100 microg gonadorelin) or no further treatment at TAI. Treatment with eCG increased the growth rate of the largest follicle from Days 9 to 11 (means+/-SEM, 1.53+/-0.1 vs. 0.48+/-0.1mm/d; P<0.0001), its diameter on Day 11 (11.4+/-0.6 vs. 9.3+/-0.7 mm; P=0.03), as well as ovulation rate (80.8% vs. 50.0%, P=0.02), whereas GnRH improved the synchrony of ovulation (72.0+/-1.1 vs. 71.1+/-2.0 h). In Experiment 2 (n=599 cows, 40 to 120 d postpartum), pregnancy rates differed (P=0.004) among groups (27.6%, 40.1%, 47.7%, and 55.7% for Control, GnRH, eCG, and eCG+GnRH groups). Both eCG and GnRH improved pregnancy rates (51.7% vs. 33.8%, P=0.002; and 48.0% vs 37.6%, P=0.02, respectively), although their effects were not additive (no significant interaction). In conclusion, eCG at norgestomet implant removal increased the growth rate of the largest follicle (LF) from implant removal to TAI, the diameter of the LF at TAI, and rates of ovulation and pregnancy rates. Furthermore, GnRH at TAI improved the synchrony of ovulations and pregnancy rates in postpartum Nelore cows treated with a norgestomet-based TAI protocol.

Pub.: 19 Jan '10, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Progesterone-based estrous synchronization protocols in non-suckled and suckled primiparous Bos indicus beef cows.

Abstract: In Experiment 1, effects of an intravaginal progesterone insert (CIDR) for synchronization of estrus in non-suckled cycling primiparous Bos indicus beef cows were evaluated. Cows received either no treatment (Control), prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF), or CIDR (6 d) + prostaglandin F(2alpha) (CIDR + PGF). There were greater (P < 0.05) percentages of cows inseminated and pregnant in 4 d of breeding season in CIDR + PGF (81.6%; 48.7%) than in PGF (53.8%; 32.5%) and Control cows (14.6%; 8.5%). In Experiment 2, efficacy of a treatment with CIDR (6 d) + prostaglandin F(2alpha) + 48 h temporary weaning (CIDR + PGF + TW) associated or not with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for synchronization of estrus in suckled primiparous B. indicus beef cows was evaluated. Cows were assigned to receive either no treatment (Control), CIDR + PGF + TW, CIDR + PGF + TW + 200 IU of eCG, or CIDR + PGF + TW + 400 IU of eCG. There were greater (P < 0.05) percentages of insemination and pregnancy in 4 d of breeding season in treatment groups (47.0%; 27.5%) than in Control cows (4.5%; 3.0%) and in cows treated with eCG (50.9%; 29.4%) than in cows treated only with CIDR + PGF + TW (39.4%; 23.7%). No effects of eCG dosage were detected. The percentage of cows inseminated and pregnant in a 30 d breeding season were greater (P < 0.05) in cows assigned to synchronization treatments (53.3%; 37.2%) than in Control cows (35.3%; 21.4%). In the beginning of the BS, non-suckled primiparous cows treated with CIDR + PGF with estrous cycles having been initiated following calving had greater estrous detection and pregnancy rates than PGF and Control cows, and suckled primiparous cows had improved estrous detection and pregnancy rates when eCG was associated with CIDR + PGF + TW.

Pub.: 16 Jan '10, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists.

Pub.: 08 May '00, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Increased fertility in lactating dairy cows resynchronized with Double-Ovsynch compared with Ovsynch initiated 32 d after timed artificial insemination.

Abstract: The objective was to determine if using a Double-Ovsynch protocol [DO; Pre-Resynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF(2α)-3 d-GnRH, 7 d later Breeding-Resynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF(2α)-56 h-GnRH-16 h-timed artificial insemination (TAI)] to resynchronize ovulation after a previous TAI would increase synchrony and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) compared with an Ovsynch protocol initiated 32 d after TAI (D32; GnRH-7 d-PGF(2α)-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI). Lactating Holstein cows at various days in milk and prior AI services were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to resynchronization treatments. All DO cows received the first GnRH injection of Pre-Resynch 22 d after TAI, and cows (n=981) diagnosed not pregnant using transrectal ultrasonography 29 d after TAI continued the protocol. Pregnancy status for all D32 cows was evaluated 29 d after TAI so fertility and pregnancy loss could be compared with that of DO cows. All D32 cows received the first GnRH injection of Ovsynch 32 d after TAI, and cows (n=956) diagnosed not pregnant using transrectal palpation 39 d after TAI continued the protocol. In a subgroup of cows from each treatment, ultrasonography (n=751) and serum progesterone (P4) concentrations (n=743) were used to determine the presence of a functional corpus luteum (CL) and ovulation to the first GnRH injection of D32 and Breeding-Resynch of DO (GnRH1), luteal regression after PGF before TAI, and ovulation to the GnRH injection before TAI (GnRH2). Overall, P/AI 29 d after TAI was not affected by parity and was greater for DO compared with D32 cows (39 vs. 30%). Pregnancy loss from 29 to 74 d after TAI was not affected by parity or treatment. The percentage of cows with a functional CL (P4 ≥1.0 ng/mL) at GnRH1 was greater for DO than D32 cows (81 vs. 58%), with most DO cows having medium P4 (60%; 1.0 to 3.49 ng/ml), whereas most D32 cows had either low (42%; <1.0 ng/mL) or high (36%; ≥3.5 ng/mL) P4 at GnRH1. Ovulation to GnRH1 was similar between treatments but was affected by serum P4 at GnRH. Cows with low P4 (<1.0 ng/mL) had the greatest ovulatory response (59%), followed by cows with medium (≥1.0 to 3.49 ng/mL; 38%) and then high (≥3.50 ng/mL; 16%) P4 at GnRH1. A greater percentage of DO cows were synchronized compared with D32 cows (72 vs. 51%) primarily due to a greater percentage of D32 than DO cows without a functional CL at the PGF injection before TAI (35 vs. 17%) or without complete CL regression before GnRH2 (17 vs. 7%). We conclude that DO increased fertility of lactating dairy cows during a resynchronization program primarily by increasing synchronization of cows during the Ovsynch protocol before TAI.

Pub.: 28 Jan '12, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination in early post-partum dairy cows after Ovsynch or specific synchronization protocols.

Abstract: The present study was designed to compare the reproductive performance of pre-synchronized post-partum dairy cows subjected, either to the Ovsynch protocol without screening for ovarian status (control group), or to a specific oestrous synchronization protocol applied according to their ovarian status, as determined by transrectal ultrasound (experimental group). The study was conducted on 428 lactating dairy cows. Cows in the Ovsynch group (n = 205) were synchronized and time inseminated after receiving the Ovsynch protocol treatment. Cows in the specific synchronization (Ssynch) group (n = 223) were weekly subjected to transrectal ultrasound exams for 4 weeks, or until AI or starting treatment, and divided into four subgroups according to their ovarian status: (i). corpus luteum (CL) subgroup (n = 130), cows with a CL; (ii). natural oestrus (NE) subgroup (n = 58), cows showing NE; (iii). anovulatory follicles (AF) subgroup (n = 26), cows considered to have AF; and (iv). ovarian cysts (OC) subgroup (n = 9), cows with OC. Cows in the Ssynch group were synchronized and time inseminated following a specific oestrous synchronization protocol, or inseminated at NE. Logistic regression analysis was carried out for the dependent variables ovulation and pregnancy rates to first and to second AI (second AI: first AI + return AI). Cows subjected to Ssynch were 2.1 times more likely to become pregnant at first and at second AI compared with those synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol (P < 0.0001). Our results show that the response of post-partum pre-synchronized cows to a specific oestrous synchronization protocol applied according to their ovarian status is more effective than the response to the Ovsynch protocol applied without taking into account the ovarian status of the animals.

Pub.: 17 Apr '04, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Induction of ovarian follicular wave emergence and ovulation in progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocols for Bos indicus cattle.

Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5mg EV or 5mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5±0.2; mean±SE) than in those treated with 2.5mg EV (4.2±0.3) or 5mg EV (6.1±0.6). Cows treated with 5mg EV (4.0±0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5±0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5mg EV (3.1±0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1mg EB given 24h after implant removal (n=219), or 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2×3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC=48.3%, or GnRH=48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n=212) or both treatments (EC+GnRH; n=215)] on P/AI was evaluated in suckled beef cows treated with a once-used NORG implant and EB to synchronize the FWE. Similar P/AI (P=0.71) were obtained using GnRH (50.9%), EC (51.8%) or both treatments (54.9%) as ovulation induction hormones. Therefore, both doses of EV (2.5 or 5.0mg) with NORG implant delayed and increased the variation of the day of new FWE compared with EB in B. indicus cattle. These effects were more pronounced in B. indicus heifers than cows. Synchronization protocols for FTAI with either a new or once-used NORG implant with EB at insertion to induce a new FWE and either the use of EB, EC or GnRH as ovulation induction hormones may be successful in B. indicus heifers. Also, when a once-used NORG implant was used, either the administration of EC, GnRH or both as ovulation inducers resulted in similar P/AI in suckled B. indicus cows, showing no additive effect of the combination of both ovulation induction hormones.

Pub.: 10 Jan '12, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Manipulation of progesterone to increase ovulatory response to the first GnRH treatment of an Ovsynch protocol in lactating dairy cows receiving first timed artificial insemination.

Abstract: Ovulation to the first GnRH (G1) treatment of the Ovsynch protocol improves synchronization rate and pregnancies per AI (P/AI). Elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations at G1 decrease the ovulatory response by decreasing the magnitude of the GnRH-induced LH surge. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the effect of temporarily decreasing P4 concentrations before initiation of an Ovsynch protocol on ovulatory response to G1 and P/AI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=800) at 53±3 (herd A) or 51±3 (herd B) d in milk (DIM) were synchronized using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol [pre-Ovsynch protocol (d 0, GnRH; d 7, PGF2α; d 10, GnRH) followed 7 d later by an Ovsynch-56 protocol (d 0, G1; d 7, PGF2α; d 8, PGF2α; d 9.5, GnRH)] to receive first timed artificial insemination (TAI; 80±3 DIM) 16h after the last GnRH treatment. Cows were randomly assigned to receive 12.5mg of PGF2α (a half-dose of dinoprost tromethamine) 2 d before G1 (low-P4) or serve as untreated controls (high-P4). Overall, high-P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at G1 compared with low-P4 cows (3.0 vs. 1.3ng/mL, respectively). Ovulatory response to G1 was greater for low-P4 than high-P4 cows [81.1 vs. 60.3%, respectively]. Premature luteal regression during the second Ovsynch protocol did not differ between treatments [15.0% vs. 10.7%; for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Overall, P/AI did not differ between treatments 32 d after TAI [56.3 vs. 52.9%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively] or 67 d after AI [50.5 vs. 47.6%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments [9.9 vs. 9.3%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Overall, cows that ovulated to G1 had more P/AI than cows that did not ovulate [58.2 vs. 41.8%, respectively]. The increase in P/AI for cows that ovulated to G1 (16.4%) combined with the observed increase in ovulation to G1 due to treatment (20.8%; low-P4 - high-P4) resulted in the expected numerical increase in P/AI of 3.4% in low-P4 versus high-P4 cows observed in this experiment. We conclude that administration of a half-dose of PGF2α 2 d before G1 during a Double-Ovsynch protocol decreased P4 at G1 and increased ovulatory response to G1.

Pub.: 12 Oct '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Effects of eCG are more pronounced in primiparous than multiparous Bos indicus cows submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol.

Abstract: The effects of eCG on follicular growth, ovulation, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in multiparous and primiparous Bos indicus beef cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) were evaluated in three experiments. In experiments 1 (follicular responses; n = 64), 2 (follicular growth and ovulation rate; n = 662), and 3 (P/AI; n = 2092), cows submitted to TAI were assigned to receive one of two treatments on Day 8 of the synchronization protocol: control (no additional treatment) or eCG (300-IU of eCG intramuscularly). In experiment 1, largest follicle (LF) diameter on Day 8 (P = 0.56) and the interval from progesterone (P4)-device removal to ovulation (P = 0.79) did not differ between treatments. However, the maximum diameter of the LF (P = 0.05) and ovulation rate (P = 0.03) were greater in cows that received eCG. In experiment 2, the diameter of the LF on Day 10, follicular growth, and ovulation rate were greater in eCG-treated cows (P < 0.01). However, CL diameter was similar between treatments (P = 0.11). In experiment 3, there was a treatment-by-parity interaction (P = 0.003) on P/AI, such that treatment with eCG was more effective in primiparous cows. In conclusion, eCG treatment resulted in increased final follicular growth, ovulation rate, and fertility in B indicus cows submitted to TAI protocols, especially in primiparous cows.

Pub.: 13 Sep '16, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Efficacy of the 5-day CO-Synch ovulation synchronization protocol with or without the inclusion of exogenous progesterone in beef cows

Abstract: Fixed timed-AI (TAI) pregnancy rates were compared in suckled beef cows (n = 883; 5 replications) synchronized using the 5-d CO-Synch protocol with (CDR) or without (NCDR) the inclusion of exogenous progesterone (EAZI-BREED CIDR insert; CIDR). Cows were assigned to either the CDR (n = 445) or NCDR (n = 438) treatment by breed, parity, and days postpartum. Blood samples were collected 10 d before and immediately before CIDR insertion (d 0) to determine cyclic status. On d 0 all cows received gonadotropin-releasing hormone (100 μg), and cows in the CDR treatment received a CIDR. On d 5, CIDR were removed in CDR treatment and all cows received 2 separate doses of prostaglandin F2α (25 mg/dose). Cows were TAI 72 h after CIDR removal (d 8), concurrent with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (100 μg). The proportion of females determined to be cyclic before estrous synchronization was 87.1% (757/869). Timed-AI pregnancy rates were greater (P = 0.05) in CDR (62.3%, n = 438) than NCDR (50.7%, n = 436) treatment. However, a treatment × parity interaction (P = 0.08) was noted relative to TAI. Although CDR obtained greater (P ≤ 0.01) TAI pregnancy rates than NCDR in both primiparous and multiparous groups, difference between treatments was greater in primiparous females (69.0 vs. 46.3% for CDR and NCDR, respectively) than multiparous females (60.7 vs. 51.7% for CDR and NCDR, respectively). To optimize TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows synchronized with the 5-d CO-Synch protocol, inclusion of a CIDR is recommended.

Pub.: 19 Jan '16, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Cloprostenol sodium and dinoprost tromethamine result in similar artificial insemination pregnancy rates in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle synchronized with a Select Synch and CIDR plus timed–artificial insemination protocol

Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate breed [Angus (AN), Brahman (BR), and varying percentages of BR × AN breeding] and prostaglandin F2α (PGF) type [dinoprost tromethamine (dinoprost) vs. cloprostenol sodium (cloprostenol)] in suckled cows (Exp. 1; n = 504) and 2-yr-old virgin heifers (Exp. 2; n = 309) synchronized with a Select Synch + controlled intravaginal drug-releasing insert and timed-AI protocol (SSCT). On d −7, cows and heifers received gonadotropin-releasing hormone and controlled intravaginal drug-releasing inserts. At controlled intravaginal drug-releasing insert removal (d 0), cows were stratified by BCS, days postpartum, parity, and breed; heifers were stratified by BCS and breed. In both experiments cattle were randomly allotted to receive either dinoprost (25 mg) or cloprostenol (500 μg). Estrus was detected 3 times per day for 72 h after PGF, and AI was conducted by the am/pm rule. At 72 h after PGF, nonresponders were timed artificially inseminated and received gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The AI pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) between PGF treatments in Exp. 1 (51%) and Exp. 2 (46%). In Exp. 1, AN (52%), 1/4 to 3/8 BR (42%), and 1/2 BR (59%) cows had similar AI pregnancy rates, whereas 1/2 BR (59%) had a greater (P < 0.05) AI pregnancy rates compared with cows with ≥3/4 BR (41%). In Exp. 2, heifer breed had no effect on AI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, dinoprost and cloprostenol in a SSCT protocol yielded similar AI pregnancy rates in cows and 2-yr-old virgin heifers across all breed types; however, AI pregnancy rates were influenced by breed type in cows but not 2-yr-old virgin heifers.

Pub.: 28 Sep '16, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Evaluation of the 14-d CIDR-PG and 9-d CIDR-PG protocols for synchronization of estrus in Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers.

Abstract: Two long-term, CIDR-based estrus synchronization protocols were evaluated among Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers. Treatments were evaluated on the basis of estrous response and pregnancy rate resulting from fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI), and these outcomes were analyzed retrospectively relative to reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5) at treatment initiation. Estrus was synchronized for 1139 heifers in three locations, and heifers were assigned to one of two treatments within each location based on RTS. Heifers assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0, CIDR removal on Day 14, administration of prostaglandin F2α (PG; 25 mg im) on Day 30, and administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 100 μg im) concurrent with FTAI on Day 33, 66 h after PG. Heifers assigned to the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol received administration of PG concurrent with CIDR insertion on Day 5, administration of PG concurrent with CIDR removal on Day 14, administration of PG on Day 30, and administration of GnRH concurrent with FTAI on Day 33, 66 h after PG. Estrus detection aids were applied at CIDR removal on Day 14 and at PG on Day 30 to evaluate estrous response rate. Mean RTS differed (P < 0.0001) based on biological type due to higher rates of estrous cyclicity (RTS 4 and 5) among Bos taurus heifers (72%; 416/574) than among Bos indicus-influenced heifers (27%; 150/565). The proportion of heifers expressing estrus following CIDR removal was greater (P = 0.01) among heifers assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG treatment (88%; 492/559) compared to the 9-d CIDR-PG treatment (83%; 480/580). Estrous response following CIDR removal was also higher (P < 0.0001) among Bos taurus (95%; 547/574) compared to Bos indicus-influenced (75%; 425/565) heifers. Rate of estrous response prior to FTAI did not differ significantly based on treatment but was higher (P < 0.0001) among Bos taurus heifers (60%; 344/574) than among Bos indicus-influenced heifers (45%; 253/565). However, the effect of biological type on estrous response was not significant when RTS was included in the model, as RTS significantly (P < 0.0001) affected the rate of estrous response both at CIDR removal and prior to FTAI. Across treatments and biological types, heifers that expressed estrus prior to AI achieved higher (P < 0.0001) AI pregnancy rates than heifers failing to express estrus. Pregnancy rates to FTAI did not differ significantly based on treatment in either biological type. Higher rates of estrous cyclicity among Bos taurus heifers resulted in higher FTAI pregnancy rates among Bos taurus (51%; 290/574) compared to Bos indicus-influenced heifers (39%; 218/565). However, pregnancy rates of respective RTS did not differ based on biological type. In summary, long-term CIDR-based protocols provide a simple, effective method of estrus synchronization in Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of management practices that result in high rates of estrous cyclicity prior to protocol initiation, particularly among later maturing breeds and biological types.

Pub.: 27 Feb '17, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Relationship between circulating progesterone at timed-AI and fertility in dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols

Abstract: The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to investigate the effect of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations at the time of timed-AI (TAI) on fertility, and 2) to examine risk factors associated with plasma P4 concentrations that impair fertility in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols. Data from 872 lactating Holstein cows that had, or had not been presynchronized prior to a 7-day GnRH-based TAI protocol were examined. However, data from only those cows (n = 697; 79.9%) that ovulated after second GnRH were analyzed. Plasma P4 concentrations were determined using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to determine cyclicity at first GnRH treatment, ovulation after first and second GnRH treatments, and pregnancy status at 32 and 60 d after TAI. Parity, days in milk (DIM) and BCS were also recorded. Plasma P4 concentrations at TAI ranged from 0.0 to 9.94 ng/mL (overall mean ± SEM, 0.32 ± 0.02 ng/mL) and 41 (5.9%) cows had P4 ≥ 1.0 ng/mL at TAI. The percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32 and 60 d after TAI was 45.1 and 41.6%, respectively, and pregnancy loss from 32 to 60 d after TAI was 7.6%. Plasma P4 concentrations at TAI affected (P < 0.01) P/AI at 32 and 60 d, but did not affect (P > 0.1) pregnancy loss. No cows with plasma P4 concentrations >0.80 ng/mL became pregnant. However, ROC curve analysis revealed that the optimal P4 threshold at TAI for P/AI at 32 d was ≤0.50 ng/mL, with a sensitivity and specificity of 94.9 and 20.9, respectively. The percentage of cows with plasma P4 concentrations >0.50 ng/mL was 15.8% (110/697). Furthermore, a significant (P < 0.05) quadratic relationship between plasma P4 concentrations at TAI and P/AI at 32 d was observed. The maximum predicted probability of pregnancy was 0.54 at a P4 concentration of 0.26 ng/mL. Based on the odds ratios (OR), cows with P4 ≤ 6.2 ng/mL at PGF were 2.3 times less likely to have P4 > 0.50 ng/mL at TAI compared to cows with P4 > 6.2 ng/mL (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.71; P < 0.01). Also, cyclic cows subjected to presynchronization were less likely to undergo luteal regression than non-presynchronized or acyclic cows (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 1.77 to 16.27; P < 0.01). In summary, plasma P4 concentrations >0.50 ng/mL at TAI resulted in significantly reduced fertility. As elevated plasma P4 concentrations at TAI were more frequent in cows with lower P4 at PGF or those subjected to presynchronization, both groups are most likely to benefit from an additional PGF treatment prior to TAI.

Pub.: 11 Feb '17, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Comparison of estrus synchronization by controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) and adhesive transdermal progestin patch in postpartum beef cows.

Abstract: Estrous synchronization with progesterone based protocols has been essentially used in cattle industry. Although intravaginal devices have been commonly used, this technique may induce vaginitis. This study aimed at examining the efficiency of novel transdermal progestin patch on follicle development and comparing the progestin patch versus CIDR device on estrous synchronization, complication at treated site and pregnancy in beef cattle. In experiment 1, seven beef cows were treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch on the ventral surface of the proximal part of the tail for 7 days. The cows were daily examined the follicular development using ultrasonography starting on Day 0 till 3 days after hormone removal. Experiment 2, forty beef cows were divided into two equal groups (20 cows per group). The cows randomly allocated to received either vaginal insertion of CIDR (n = 20) or treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch (n = 20). The levels of plasma progesterone during the experiment and the numbers of standing estrous cows were recorded. Timed artificial inseminated (TAI) was performed at 60 h after CIDR or patch termination. Pregnancy rates were determined at 60 days after TAI. Experiment 1 revealed that the novel transdermal progestin patch could efficiently control follicular growth. All the seven treated cows had dominant follicle upon dermal patch removal indicating the effectiveness of the progestin patch. In experiment 2, the percentages of cows exhibited standing estrus were similar between transdermal patch (72.22%) and CIDR (70.00%). The levels of plasma progesterone during CIDR treatment were significantly higher (4.06 ± 1.65 ng/mL on Day 1 and 3.62 ± 1.60 ng/mL on Day 7) compared with transdermal patch (2.60 ± 1.43 ng/mL on Day 1 and 1.81 ± 1.57 ng/mL on Day 7). Three cows treated with CIDR (15%) developed vaginitis while none of cows had physically dermal reaction at adhesive site. Cows synchronized with these two protocols had similar pregnancy rates (50.00%) following fixed time artificial insemination. It is concluded that transdermal progestin patch was equally effective in estrus synchronization as compared with traditional CIDR. However, the transdermal patch demonstrated less complication. This device should therefore be considered as an alternative method for estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle.

Pub.: 15 Jul '17, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Effects of GnRH, a progesterone-releasing device, and energy balance on an oestrus synchronisation program in anoestrous dairy cows.

Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the roles of the day 0 energy balance and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone levels on dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) development during the first 7 days of a gonadotrophin-prostaglandin-gonadotrophin (GPG) + progesterone (P4) program in anoestrous dairy cows.Cows (n = 81) were allocated to one of the three treatments: (1) GPG + P4 (days 0 and 9, 100 µg GnRH; day 0-7, intravaginal P4 device; day 7, 500 µg PGF2α ); (2) GPG (as for treatment 1 but excluding the P4 device) and (3) prostaglandin + GnRH + P4 (as for treatment 1, but excluding day 0 GnRH). DF and CL size, plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured on days 0 and 7.The proportion of cows with a CL on day 7 was significantly different between groups (GPG: 78%, GPG+P4: 69%, PGF2α + GnRH + P4: 42%, P = 0.02). The CL volume on day 7 was significantly associated with treatment, treatment by time postpartum and plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA.In cows without a CL present on day 0 of an oestrus synchronisation program, removal of the day 0 GnRH treatment led to reduced CL development; however, no effect of adding progesterone was found. In contrast, in cows with a CL present on day 0 inclusion of a progesterone device led to a higher CL volume, but removal of the first GnRH injection had no effect. Response to the treatment was affected by plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA.

Pub.: 28 Jul '17, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Pathways of the dominant follicle after exposure to sub-luteal circulating progesterone concentrations are different in lactating dairy cows versus non-lactating heifers.

Abstract: With the increased use of different synchronization programs in cattle, attention is given to the progesterone concentration during development of the ovulatory follicle. It has been shown that low peripheral progesterone concentrations during follicular development may lead to decreased fertility. To investigate the effect of low progesterone concentrations on the fate of the dominant follicle, a study was conducted where cycles of dairy cows and heifers were manipulated to induce the development of the first dominant follicle without progesterone (PLACEBO) or under sub-luteal progesterone concentrations from a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID Delta(®)). After insertion of the devices, daily follow up was performed by transrectal ultrasonography to identify and measure follicular development and blood samples were taken to determine the circulating progesterone concentration. Follow up was continued until the ovulation of a follicle occurred. After ovulation, the fate of the first dominant follicle was identified as arrested, atretic or ovulatory. Arrest was defined as persistence of the dominant follicle followed by ovulation whereas atresia was defined as regression of the dominant follicle and subsequent growth and ovulation of a new follicle. During PLACEBO treatment, heifers ovulated earlier and smaller follicles in comparison to cows. During PRID Delta(®) treatment, heifers had greater progesterone concentrations compared to cows and arrest of the dominant follicle occurred more in cows in comparison to heifers. In cycles where the dominant follicle was arrested, the ovulatory follicle was larger in comparison to cycles where the dominant follicle was atretic.

Pub.: 01 Feb '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

The correlation between the number of antral follicles and ovarian reserves (preantral follicles) in purebred Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare populations of preantral follicles between purebred Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows with high or low antral follicle counts (AFC) and to correlate the number of preantral follicles with the population of antral follicles. Nelore (Bos indicus, n=100) and Angus (Bos taurus, n=100) cow ovaries were collected at abattoirs and examined using ultrasonography. Antral follicles ≥3mm were counted, and the cows ovaries were assigned to high (G-High) or low (G-Low) AFC groups based on the mean number (±1 SD) of ovarian antral follicles: Bos indicus with high AFC (≥57 follicles, n=8) or low AFC (≤21 follicles, n=8) and Bos taurus with high (≥45 follicles, n=10) or low AFC (≤13 follicles, n=10). The ovaries were processed, and the number of preantral follicles was estimated. Between-groups comparisons were performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test, and the correlation between preantral and antral follicles was evaluated using a Pearson's correlation test (P≤0.05). A large variation in the number of preantral follicles was observed among the animals. Although there was a correlation between the population of preantral follicles and the number of antral follicles, there was no difference between the mean number of preantral follicles in the Bos indicus G-High (48,349±30,149) and G-Low groups (33,037±31,710) or between the Bos taurus G-High (35,050±36,060) and G-Low groups (30,481±43,360). Therefore, the preantral follicle population did not differ between purebred Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle with high or low AFC but was correlated with the number of antral follicles. In addition to the large within-groups variation in the number of preantral follicles, some cows with high AFC had lower populations of preantral follicles compared to the low AFC group, and the highest population of preantral follicles was observed in both Bos indicus and Bos taurus with low AFC.

Pub.: 04 Dec '14, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

A comparison of two different esters of estradiol for the induction of ovulation in an estradiol plus progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol for suckled Bos indicus beef cows.

Abstract: The abilities of two different estradiol esters to induce ovulation in a timed AI (TAI) synchronization protocol in suckled Bos indicus cows were evaluated. In Experiment 1 (synchrony of ovulation), 31 cows were submitted to an estradiol/progestin-based synchronization protocol (Day 0) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments at the time of progestin removal on Day 8: 0.5 or 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate (EC) at that time or 1.0mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) 24h later (Day 9). To determine the timing of ovulation, ultrasound examinations were performed every 12h from ear implant removal to 96 h after the removal. Orthogonal comparisons were performed to determine the effects of estradiol ester and the effects of the dose of EC on reproductive parameters. Although neither the E2 ester (P = 0.83) nor the dose of EC (P = 0.55) affected the ovulation rate, the interval from progestin removal to ovulation was longer (P=0.04) in EC-treated cows (1.0mg EC = 71.1 ± 3.6 and 0.5mg EC = 78.0 ± 3.5) than EB-treated cows (EB = 66.0 ± 2.3) was detected. Ovulation in 0.5-mg-EC-treated cows was less synchronous than that in 1.0-mg-EC-treated cows (distribution curves compared using kurtosis). In Experiment 2 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI), 660 cows at two different locations received the same synchronization protocol (n = 361 at Farm A and n = 299 at Farm B) and were treated with estradiol esters as in Experiment 1 [0.5mg EC (n = 220) or 1.0mg EC (n = 219) at the time of progestin removal or 1.0mg EB (n = 221) 24h later]. The cows were inseminated 54 to 56 h after progestin removal. As applied in the Experiment 1, orthogonal comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of estradiol ester and the dose of EC on P/AI. Although the type of estradiol ester used did not affect the P/AI (P = 0.57; EB - 43.0% vs. EC - 44.6%), the P/AI was higher (P=0.03) in cows treated with 1.0mg EC (55.7%) than in those treated with 0.5mg EC (38.6%). In summary, the administration of 0.5mg EC at the time of progestin removal altered the distribution of ovulation and resulted in a lower P/AI when compared with the use of 1.0mg EC in suckled B. indicus cows. However, the P/AI following the administration of 1.0mg EC at the time of progestin removal did not differ from that after the administration of 1.0mg EB 24h later.

Pub.: 14 Oct '14, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

Abstract: The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers.

Pub.: 15 Jul '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

A field investigation of a modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocol designed for fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers.

Abstract: Pregnancy rates (PR) to fixed-time AI (FTAI) in Brahman heifers were compared after treatment with a traditional oestradiol-based protocol (OPO-8) or a modified protocol (OPO-6) where the duration of intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) was reduced from 8 to 6 days, and the interval from IPRD removal to oestradiol benzoate (ODB) was increased from 24 to 36 h. Rising 2 yo heifers on Farm A: (n = 238 and n = 215; two consecutive days AI); B (n = 271); and C (n = 393) were allocated to OPO-8 or OPO-6. An IPRD was inserted and 1mg ODB i.m. on Day 0 for OPO-8 heifers and Day 2 for OPO-6 heifers. On Day 8, the IPRD was removed and 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24h, for OPO-8 heifers, and 36 h, for OPO-6 heifers, post IPRD removal all heifers received 1mg ODB i.m. FTAI was conducted at 54 and 72 h post IPRD removal for OPO-8 and OPO-6 heifers. At Farm A, OPO-6 heifers, AI on the second day, the PR was 52.4% to FTAI (P = 0.024) compared to 36.8% for OPO-8 heifers. However, no differences were found between OPO-8 and OPO-6 protocols at Farm A (first day of AI) (39.9 vs. 35.7%), or Farms B (26.2 vs. 35.4%) and C (43.2% vs. 40.3%). Presence of a corpus luteum at IPRD insertion affected PR to FTAI (43.9% vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001). This study has shown that the modified ovulation synchronisation protocol OPO-6 may be a viable alternative to the OPO-8 protocol for FTAI in B. indicus heifers.

Pub.: 19 Aug '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Comparative efficacy of exogenous eCG and progesterone on endogenous progesterone and pregnancy in Holstein cows submitted to timed artificial insemination.

Abstract: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of the administration of either eCG or progesterone (P4) alone or combined on endogenous P4 concentrations and pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows. Cows received a P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) and estradiol benzoate on D-8. The PRID was removed and a PGF2α injection was given on D-3. An estradiol cypionate was given on D-2 and TAI was performed on D0. On D-2, cows were randomly allocated to treatments in a 2×2 factorial design: Control-saline solution on the D-2 and D+3 (n=104), eCG - 400IU eCG on D-2 (n=93), P4 - 600mg of P4 on D+3 (n=106), and eCG+P4 - 400IU eCG on D-2 and 600mg of P4 on D+3 (n=95). Blood samples were collected on days three, four, and thirteen and pregnancy diagnoses were performed at 32 and 46 days after AI. There was no interaction between eCG and P4 injection. Cows treated with eCG and with P4 injection had higher serum P4 on Day +4. On Day +13 serum P4 was lower in eCG-untreated primiparous cows (Interaction eCG×parity). Cows with serum P4<4.57ng/mL on Day +13 had lower probability to be pregnant on day 32. P/AI on days 32 and 46 and embryonic losses were not influenced by eCG and P4 injection. In conclusion, the addition of 400IU of eCG on D-2 and/or 600mg of P4 on D+3 to the present TAI protocol did not increase P/AI.

Pub.: 16 Oct '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; P<0.001). In Study 2, lactating Nelore cows (n=412) were subjected to an EB-CIDR based TAI protocol. On the morning of Day 10 (time of TAI), cows were randomized into Control (n=209) and Block (n=203) groups; (1) Cows in the Control Group were TAI 48 h after CIDR removal (08:00 am on Day 10), and; (2) Cows in the block group were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols.

Pub.: 21 Oct '15, Pinned: 24 Sep '17

Expression of estrus before fixed-time AI affects conception rates and factors that impact expression of estrus and the repeatability of expression of estrus in sequential breeding seasons.

Abstract: Expression of estrus after PG and before fixed-time AI has been reported to change the uterine environment, increase accessory sperm numbers, fertilization rates, and overall embryo survival. Thus, expression of estrus can strongly impact overall pregnancy success. Because of variation in percentage of beef females detected in estrus and number of animals per study, it can be difficult to detect a significant effect of estrus on pregnancy success. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted using data from 10,116 beef females in 22 studies that utilized variations of the 5 most common fixed-time AI protocols (CO-Synch, 7-day CO-Synch+CIDR, 5-day CIDR, PG 6-day CIDR, and the 14-day CIDR protocols) to examine the effect of detection in standing estrus on subsequent fixed-time AI pregnancy success. A random-effects model was used to combine the studies/herds. The overall model indicated a positive effect of estrus on conception rates with cows detected in estrus before fixed-time AI having a 27% greater (P<0.05; 95% CI=22-32%) conception rate compared with those not detected in estrus. Next we determined factors that influenced expression of estrus. Data were available on 547 cows synchronized with a CIDR based fixed-time AI protocols and observed for estrus before AI during 2-4 breeding seasons. Analysis of these cows indicated that days postpartum (P=0.22) did not impact estrous expression. In contrast, BCS influenced estrous expression (P=0.04) with cows in a BCS of ≤4 (51±5%) having decreased expression of estrus compared to cows with a BCS>4 (≥70±4%). Initiation of estrous cycles before the breeding season also influenced estrous expression (P=0.03), with anestrous cows having greater expression of estrus compared with estrus-cycling cows (78±5% vs. 70±5%, respectively). In conclusion, among all currently recommended fixed-time AI protocols, cows detected in estrus before fixed-time AI had improved conception rates, with BCS and estrus-cycling status having the greatest influence on expression of estrus.

Pub.: 26 Jan '16, Pinned: 24 Sep '17