PhD research student, University of Venda
To ascertain malting period that concentrate nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of the millet
Polyphenols are notable bioactive phytochemicals in foods and in supplements for their role in disease risk reduction and improving health and wellness. Cereal-based foods are viable carriers of bioactive compounds due to their widespread consumption as staple foods by much of the world's population. Finger millet is among underutilized whole grains that have comparable and or superior nutritional and phytochemical composition compared to major cereals such as wheat and maize (Shahidi & Chandrasekara, 2013). The millet has attracted considerable attention both as a food and a therapeutic alternative due to its unique nutritional composition and antioxidant properties. It is the only whole grain with the highest amount of calcium content of 398 mg/ g. It has been demonstrated that regular consumption of the millet reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal tract disorder (Gopalan, 1981; Tovey, 1994). Finger millet is widely consumed in many developing countries especially in Africa and Asia. Traditionally, the millet is either processed by soaking, germination or fermentation, with the resultant flour or extract widely used in variety of food, beverages and certain therapeutic preparations. Fractions (whole, dehulled, hull) of the millet, and processing methods such as cooking, soaking, roasting, germination or malting and fermentation have been evaluated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activities. However, the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of the millet at extended germination and/ or malting period have not been extensively investigated. The aim of the study was to monitor the changes in the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity in finger millet varieties over a 96 h malting periods in order to elucidate the effect on the nutraceutical properties.
Gopalan C. (1981): Carbohydrates in diabetic diet. Bulletin of Nutrition Foundation, India, 3.
Shahidi F., Chandrasekara A. (2013): Millet grain phenolics and their role in disease risk reduction and health promotion: a review. Journal of Functional Foods, 5: 570–581.
Tovey F.I. (1994): Diet and duodenal ulcer. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9: 177–185.
Abstract: Publication date: January 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 28 Author(s): Tong Di, Guijie Chen, Yi Sun, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Hong Ye In this work, crude polysaccharides from Gracilaria rubra (GRPS) and its three purified fractions, GRPS-1-1, GRPS-2-1 and GRPS-3-2, were obtained through hot water extraction and chromatographic purification with DEAE-52 cellulose column and Sephadex G-50 column. The three purified fractions, being homogeneous heteropolysaccharides with average molecular weights of 1310, 691, 923kD and sulfuric radical contents of 5.96, 8.46 and 12.03%, respectively, were all composed of galactose and fucose. GRPS-2-1 and GRPS-3-2 had little toxicity to L-02 cells. Crude GRPS and its purified fractions exhibited strong scavenging activities against ABTS and superoxide radicals and lipid peroxidation inhibition. At a cellular level, GRPS-3-2 showed the strongest protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells. Moreover, GRPS-3-2 exhibited a much stronger immunostimulating activity on RAW264.7 cells than GRPS-1-1 and GRPS-2-1. The results suggested that GRPS, especially GRPS-3-2, could be developed as a promising functional food supplement.
Pub.: 30 Nov '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Cowpea is a drought and heat tolerant grain pulse. It contains high levels of polyphenols, with some profiles not commonly found in other pulses. The major polyphenols common to all cowpea varieties are phenolic acids derivatives (148–1176 μg/g), and flavonol glycosides (27–1060 μg/g). Some varieties also contain anthocyanins (875–3860 μg/g), and/or flavan-3-ols (2155–6297 μg/g). The flava-3-ols (tannins) are dominated by monomers, mostly catechin-7-O-glucoside. This likely makes cowpea tannins more bioavailable, while limiting their potential antinutritional properties. Cowpea also contains beneficial bioactive peptides. Evidence suggests significant anti-inflammatory effect, and benefits against cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease of cowpea polyphenols and peptides, with potential synergistic interactions. Polyphenol profile has a major impact on these properties, thus varieties can be selected for targeted benefits. With its agronomic advantages, nutritional, and health benefits, cowpea is likely to play an increasing role as ingredient in modern food applications.
Pub.: 16 Dec '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 29 Author(s): Ana Laura Carreño, Efrain Alday, Jael Quintero, Lucía Pérez, Dora Valencia, Ramón Robles-Zepeda, Judith Valdez-Ortega, Javier Hernandez, Carlos Velazquez The antioxidant properties of several polyphenolics of propolis have been reported, however their protective effect against oxidative stress considering cell integrity is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), rutin and galangin (Sonoran propolis constituents) using two murine cell lines derived from different immunological lineages (B-cell lymphoma and macrophages), based on the fluorescence of intracellularly oxidised 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) probe, together with cell morphology analysis and membrane integrity assessment by flow cytometry. CAPE (5μM) showed the highest CAA (97.9%) on B-cell lymphoma cells against 1mM H2O2, followed by rutin (25μM; 30.9%), meanwhile galangin (25μM) did not show CAA. CAPE exhibited a higher CAA than the antioxidant controls [quercetin (12.5μM), ascorbic acid (50μM) and trolox (10μM)], and additionally it helped to preserve cellular morphology. Similar effects were observed on macrophage cells, indicating that CAPE has a cellular protective effect against ROS. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential health benefits of CAPE.
Pub.: 29 Dec '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 29 Author(s): Huijuan Zhang, Shenshuo Zhang, Jing Wang, Baoguo Sun The mechanisms of wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs) to protect against 2,2′-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced oxidant injury by inducing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression were investigated. The rats in the highest-dose FOs treated group (FOsH) had the highest activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Meanwhile, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx positively correlated with the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2. The FOsH group increased the mRNA expression level of Nrf2 and down regulated the expression level of kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), demonstrated that FOs could cause a dissociation of Nrf2/Keap1 complex. As the upstream signaling of Nrf2, gene and protein expression levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) were up-regulated by FOs. Pretreatment of FOsH increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of masculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma K (MafK) not MafG and MafF.
Pub.: 21 Dec '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 29 Author(s): Davy W.H. Chávez, José L.R. Ascheri, Carlos W.P. Carvalho, Ronoel L.O. Godoy, Sidney Pacheco Addition of roasted coffee powder (CP) in whole grain sorghum flours of two genotypes were extruded in two water content conditions and the variations of total phenolic compounds (TP), phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity (AC) were investigated as well as the functional properties. Increasing CP and moisture lead to a reduction of expansion, paste viscosity and water and solubility indexes. TP was reduced in sorghum depending on the genotype (10 and 40%) after extrusion whereas in mixtures with CP, TP increased. The extrusion promoted a decrease of AC, but mixtures with CP still had higher AC than those with only sorghum. The present study indicates that it is possible to produce sorghum extrudates and CP with good antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds.
Pub.: 21 Dec '16, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 30 Author(s): Jingjing Jiao, Yan Wei, Jingnan Chen, Xinyu Chen, Yu Zhang We investigated the anti-aging and redox state regulation effects by A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs)-rich cranberry concentrate (CBC) and its comparison with B-type PACs-rich grape seed extract (GSE). Using the Q-Extractive mass spectrometry, PACs dimer A and B were identified as predominant phenolic compounds of CBC and GSE, respectively, while epicatechin was present in both extracts. Using the d-galactose-induced aging mice model, effects were investigated via an 8-week oral gavage considering water-soluble vitamin E as the positive control. Both CBC and GSE reduced hepatic and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and plasma 8-isoprostane levels by 30–57%, 24–30% and 11–62%, respectively, and decreased brain and plasma monoamine oxidase activities by 27–59% and 65–71%, respectively. CBC could improve hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity by 42%, while GSE increased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity by 13%. Therefore, both extracts exerted anti-aging effects probably via regulating in vivo redox state. However, neither generated any effect on catalase activities.
Pub.: 16 Jan '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 30 Author(s): Shuting Hu, Xinchen Zhang, Feng Chen, Mingfu Wang Ultraviolet radiation in the sunlight is able to penetrate the atmosphere and cause cumulative injury to the skin. Clinically the photoaging component of skin aging accounts for the development of sunburn, tanning and wrinkling in sun-exposed areas. In addition, chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation is a major etiologic risk factor to non-melanoma skin cancers. Recently, dietary polyphenols have been suggested as potential candidates to protect the skin from harmful effects of UV irradiation. Oral or topical treatment of some well-known dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols, has great potential to prevent damages such as UV-induced sunburn response, immunosuppression and photoaging. This review introduces the major types of DNA photolesions after UV-irradiation, the following repair mechanisms and cellular defense systems. This review also summarizes the photoprotective effects of selected dietary polyphenols against UV-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and skin inflammation.
Pub.: 16 Jan '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e.g. fava beans) are consumed. Evolution produced potent detoxification mechanisms to handle these situations. When age/genetic/environmental factors negatively impact on detoxification mechanisms, nutrition helps on providing metabolites/precursors needed for boosting innate resources. Ambiguous techniques that attempt to measure in vivo aOX power, should give way to measuring the level of supplements and their metabolites in body fluids/tissues, and to measure the efficacy on antioxidant boosting REDOX pathways.
Pub.: 31 May '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 30 Author(s): Min Shi, Hayley Loftus, Andrew J. McAinch, Xiao Q. Su Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that consumption of blueberry products has potential health benefits in ameliorating the development of obesity and its related comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic inflammation. Blueberry fruits are enriched with numerous bioactive components such as vitamins, phenolic acid and anthocyanins which could contribute to these protective effects. Possible mechanisms by which blueberries exert their beneficial properties include counteracting oxidative stress, regulating glucose metabolism, improving lipid profile, and lowering inflammatory cytokine levels in animal models and preliminary human trials. This review focuses on the potential role of blueberries as a functional food in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. Although the current evidence is promising, further randomized controlled studies in the longer term are needed to evaluate the role of blueberries and blueberry extracts to support human health.
Pub.: 16 Jan '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Increasing worldwide rates of overweight and obesity have prompted the need for new prevention and management strategies. Pulses are low-energy and nutrient-dense foods with great potential to increase satiety, which can decrease food intake and facilitate body weight management. Human intervention studies examining effects of acute pulse consumption on satiety and food intake have produced mixed results, although a recent meta-analysis summarized a significant increase in satiety but not food intake. To connect these measures more directly to obesity risk, observational studies have related pulse consumption to lower body weight and obesity risk, while intervention studies have shown significant reductions in body weight following pulse consumption with or without energy restriction. This overall literature deserves more studies to address the multiple variables, particularly pulse variety and form of consumption, all of which will strengthen the promising relationships between pulse consumption, satiety, food intake and body weight management.
Pub.: 05 Apr '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: The crude acetonic extract of broad bean seeds was separated into fraction I (low-molecular-weight compounds) and fraction II (tannin fraction) using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with ethanol and acetone/water (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phases. Phenolics present in the crude extract and fractions thereof showed antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties determined using several methods (emulsion system, ABTS, DPPH, and reducing power assays). Fraction II exhibited higher antioxidant efficacy than those of the crude extract and fraction I. In the crude extract, 14 compounds, namely phenolic acids (p-coumaric, ferulic), catechins (epicatechin, epicatechin glucoside, epicatechin gallate), procyanidin gallate, prodelphidin dimer, gallate procyanidin dimer, and digallate procyanidin dimer, were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS. Catechin gallate, digallate procyanidin dimer, and gallate procyanidin dimer were the major phenolics present in the extract.
Pub.: 07 Apr '17, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry.
Pub.: 31 May '17, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: The bioaccessibility, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolics in a cooked green lentil (Lens culinaris) (cultivar Greenland) was studied using a simulated upper gastrointestinal (UGI) digestion model combined with chemical- and cell- based antioxidant assays. The amount of released soluble phenolics increased stepwise from gastric to intestinal digestion phase. The bioaccessibility of phenolics ranged from 27 to 67% after UGI digestion. Flavonols were the main phenolic group and were found to remain relatively stable during UGI digestion. Flavanols were mainly released after intestinal digestion as opposed to phenolic acids which were mainly released from food matrix in the gastric phase (21–45%) but not detected following intestinal digestion. Phenolics of the nondigested lentil showed dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity as seen in significant inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6 in TNF-α-induced inflammation in Caco-2 cells. The Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were positively correlated with the total and individual phenolic contents.
Pub.: 27 Mar '17, Pinned: 30 Jun '17