A pinboard by
Fui Ching Lam

MBiomedSc Student, Monash University Malaysia


Athletes constantly experience a recovery process from sports performance and sports injuries. Athletes may be recovered from medical perspectives but the stamina required to participate in competitions may require additional time, depending on the severity of the injury, re-establishment of strength and physical perfection. They would then resort by consuming medications to mask the pain and aids to boost the recovery process. Some of these medications are prohibited by World Anti-doping Agency due to the presence of some illegal substances.

Then, availability and consumption of supplements, along with physiotherapy and psychotherapy, have been recognized as beneficial for athletes during the recovery process. Consequently, consumption of whey protein supplement has had a large impact on a nutritional supplement for athletes especially for rapid recovery process by increased blood profile level.

Many individual clinical studies suggested consuming whey protein has increased blood profile level on athletes. However, there are individual clinical studies concluded consuming other protein sources or supplements are better than whey protein. Therefore, conflicts of these conclusions and biases had arisen from the individual studies.

Hence, my study will begin to bridge the gap in the literature by review systematically and analysis of all the clinical studies on the effect and safety of whey protein on blood profile during recovery process among athletes with a single robust conclusion.


White matter alterations over the course of two consecutive high-school football seasons and the effect of a jugular compression collar: A preliminary longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study.

Abstract: The cumulative effects of repetitive subclinical head impacts during sports may result in chronic white matter (WM) changes and possibly, neurodegenerative sequelae. In this pilot study, we investigated the longitudinal WM changes over the course of two consecutive high-school football seasons and explored the long-term effects of a jugular vein compression collar on these WM alterations. Diffusion tensor imaging data were prospectively collected both pre- and postseason in the two consecutive seasons. Participants were assigned into either collar or noncollar groups. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach and region of interest-based approach were used to quantify changes in WM diffusion properties. Despite comparable exposure to repetitive head impacts, significant reductions in mean, axial, and/or radial diffusivity were identified in Season 1 in multiple WM regions in the noncollar group but not in the collar group. After an 8- to 9-month long off-season, these changes observed in the noncollar group partially and significantly reversed but also remained significantly different from the baseline. In Season 2, trend level WM alterations in the noncollar group were found but located in spatially different regions than Season 1. Last, the WM integrity in the collar group remained unchanged throughout the four time points. In conclusion, we quantitatively assessed the WM structural changes and partial reversal over the course of two consecutive high-school football seasons. In addition, the mitigated WM alterations in athletes in the collar group might indicate potential effect of the collar in ameliorating the changes against repetitive head impacts. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pub.: 29 Oct '17, Pinned: 30 Oct '17

Effectiveness of vertical posture recovery after external pushing impact in athletes specialized in different sports

Abstract: The ability of athletes with different training specializations to recover vertical posture after an external pushing impact was studied. Athletes engaged in cyclic exercise sports (jogging, n = 7) and complex coordinate sports (wrestling, n = 10) and nonathletes (control, n = 10) were the subjects of this study. The recovery of vertical position after a small external pushing impact on the arms extended forward was assessed using stabilography. We determined the maximum amplitude (Amp-m) of deviation from the general center of pressure, the reaction time (RT) and the velocity of reaction (V-r), as well as the variance and mean velocity of vertical posture oscillations before and after an impact. It was found that, although no differences were observed in the vertical posture stability before pushing, the Amp-m was lower in the wrestlers than in the control group (by 17.5%, p = 0.018 under the eye-open conditions; by 27.3%, p = 0.002 under the eye-closed conditions). The deprivation of visual information about the pushing moment increases the Amp-m and V-r and had no effect on the RT in all groups. Under the eye-closed conditions, an increase in Amp-m as a result of pushing was significantly lower in the wrestlers (p = 0.033) than in the control group. Under the eye-closed conditions, the accuracy of the recovery of the initial vertical position after pushing was higher in the wrestlers than in the control group (p = 0.027). The indicators of postural stability, displacement of the center of pressure, and vertical posture sway and recovery after pushing did not differ between the runners and other groups. Therefore, compared to cyclic exercises, training in complex coordinating sports more effectively improves the ability to maintain vertical posture in response to its perturbation.

Pub.: 01 Aug '17, Pinned: 30 Oct '17