PhD Candidate, The University of Sydney
Innovative statistics to enhance broiler research
My research is implementing an innovative statistical design called a Plackett-Burman design to generate novel results for the poultry industry. The Plackett-Burman design is promising as it generates a huge amount of data very efficiently and thereby minimises the cost of the experiment and the number of animal subjects required.
Enhancing poultry research is of global importance as chicken-meat production in Australia has almost doubled since 2000, making chicken the most popular meat. While chicken has become a staple of the Australian diet, many consumers are probably unaware that poultry may in fact hold the key to global food security. Production of chicken-meat and eggs are successful on a national and global scale due to the profound efficiency of poultry. The efficiency of the modern bird has been developed over years of selective breeding and tailored nutrition (yep, that’s right, no added hormones!). Chickens also owe their global success to their flexibility; they may be grown in a variety of situations ranging from a small flock within a village community or backyard chickens in the suburbs, through to large multimillion-dollar farms. All of these attributes make them a prime candidate for the success of global food security- and there is still room for improvement. That is why improving poultry research is so important, and I hope to make an impact by presenting the Plackett-Burman design to a broad nutrition audience at the Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition conference in Armidale this year.
Abstract: A methodology for the determination of volatile compounds in red wine using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/ mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) and flame ionization detector (GC -FID) was developed, validated and applied to a sample of Brazilian red wine. The optimization strategy was conducted using the Plackett-Burman design for variable selection and central composite rotational design (CCRD). The response surface methodology showed that the performance of the extraction of the volatile compounds using divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber is improved with no sample dilution, the addition of 30% NaCl, applying an extraction temperature of 56°C and extraction time of 55min. The qualitative method allowed the extraction and identification of 60 volatile compounds in the sample studied, notably the classes of esters, alcohols, and fatty acids. Furthermore, the method was successfully validated for the quantification of 55 volatile compounds of importance in wines and applied to twelve samples of Merlot red wine from South of Brazil. The calculation of the odor activity value (OAV) showed the most important components of the samples aroma. Ethyl isovalerate, ethyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, octanoic acid and ethyl cinnamate had the greatest contribution to the aroma of the wines analyzed, which is predominantly fruity with the presence of herbal and fatty odors.
Pub.: 26 Jul '17, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: To optimize the production of pH-sensitive dapsone (DAP) nanoparticles based on Eugradit L100 (NPs-EL100-DAP) for oral delivery.NPs-EL100-DAP were optimized using a Plackett-Burman design and a Box-Behnken design. The physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were monitored by microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, in vitro release assays, and examined for cytotoxicity and permeation across intestinal barrier.The in vitro release assay of NPs-EL100-DAP confirmed the nanoparticles' pH sensitivity and the ability to deliver DAP at intestinal environment. NPs-EL100-DAP demonstrated enhanced intestinal interactions in comparison to free DAP, across Caco-2 monolayers.These studies demonstrate the potential of NPs-EL100-DAP as a therapeutic platform for oral treatment of leprosy.
Pub.: 27 Jul '17, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: Application of Plackett-Burman factorial design to investigate the effect of processing factors in the fabrication of ionically crosslinked chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) microspheres.Microspheres were screened and optimized to provide maximum process yield (PY), encapsulation efficiency (EE), and time for 80% drug release (T80%) and minimum burst and particles size (PS), for successful application in periodontitis.Processing factors viz. method of preparation (MOP), CS, TPP, crosslinking time (CT), agitation (AS) and drying technique (DT) were selected. Solid state characterization was performed by Fourier-Transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mucoadhesion, cytocompatibility, and stability of microspheres were also evaluated.Pareto analysis and analysis of variance, screened most significantly (p < 0.05) impacting process factors on selected responses. The optimized microspheres demonstrated: o/w emulsification method, CS (2.5%), TPP (5%), CT (120min), AS (2000rpm) and DT (freeze-dried), and provided PY- 95.67%, PS- 168.45%, EEOZ- 85.56%, EEDX- 91.34%, BOZ- 15.26%, BDX- 12.91%, TOZ- 47.09 and TDX- 67.95 minutes. FTIR illustrated compatibility between excipients and complexation of CS and TPP. XRD and DSC showed loss of crystallinity of entrapped drugs in microspheres. Biphasic drug release was observed for four days with non-Fickian kinetics. Further, microspheres exhibited good mucoadhesivity (82.51%), antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, cytocompatibility for L929 cells and long-term stability.Therefore, CS-TPP microspheres were found mucoadhesive, safe, stable and provided controlled and prolonged release of drugs. These properties confirmed its high potential and applicability in chronic periodontitis.
Pub.: 05 Jul '17, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
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