Resident Doctor, Cairo University
A healthy body starts with a healthy mouth. A happy tooth equal to a happy body. let's know how!
Periodontal diseases are infections of the gums and bone that hold the teeth in place. .Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth ( mainly bone). How can I know if I have a periodontal disease?! The following are the most common signs and symptoms: Red, swollen, tender bleedy gums Receding gums Loose teeth Bad breath
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia). Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.
If you have diabetes, you know the disease can harm your eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart and other main systems in the body. Do you know that it can also cause problems in your mouth? Diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes.The level of glycemic control is of key importance in determining increased risk. There is a clear relationship between the degree of hyperglycaemia and severity of periodontitis. In the early 1990s periodontitis was sometimes referred to as the ‘sixth complication of diabetes’, and in 2003 the ADA acknowledged that periodontal disease is often found in people with diabetes.
It works also the other way round, how is that possible?! There has recently been much emphasis on the ‘two-way’ relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. That is, not only is diabetes a risk factor for periodontitis, but periodontitis could have a negative effect on glycemic control. Moreover, periodontitis increases the severity of diabetes complications. Studies show that the incidence of macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease are increased twofold and threefold, respectively, in diabetic individuals who also have severe periodontitis. Furthermore, people with diabetes and severe periodontitis have three times higher risk of cardiorenal mortality compared with those without severe periodontitis.
Inflammation is a central feature of the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontitis. A lot of other pathogenic mechanisms linking diabetes and periodontitis were described to illustrate the intimate interrelation.
Effective periodontal treatment was shown to be associated with decreased risk of diabetes complications. keep calm and visit your dentist twice a year to keep your teeth happy and your body healthy.
Enjoy reading papers for more detailed informations.
Abstract: This review evaluates evidence for a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases. A comprehensive Medline search of the post-1960 English language literature was employed to identify primary research reports of relationships between diabetes and periodontal diseases. Reports included in the review on the adverse effects of diabetes on periodontal health (DM-->PD) were restricted to those comparing periodontal health in subjects with and without diabetes. Review of adverse affects of periodontal infection on glycemic control included reports of periodontal treatment studies and follow-up observational studies in which changes in glycemic control could be assessed. Observational studies reporting DM-->PD provided consistent evidence of greater prevalence, severity, extent, or progression of at least one manifestation of periodontal diseases in the large majority of reports (supportive evidence in 44/48 total reviewed; 37/41 cross-sectional and 7/7 cohort). Additionally, there were no studies reviewed with superior design features to refute this association. Treatment studies provided direct evidence to support periodontal infection having an adverse, yet modifiable, effect on glycemic control. However, not all investigations reported an improvement in glycemic control after periodontal treatment. Additional evidence to support the effect of severe periodontitis on increased risk for poorer glycemic control comes from 2 follow-up observational studies. The evidence reviewed supports viewing the relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases as bidirectional. Further rigorous, systematic study is warranted to establish that treating periodontal infections can be influential in contributing to glycemic control management and possibly to the reduction of the burden of complications of diabetes mellitus.
Pub.: 13 Mar '02, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases by comparing the extent and severity of periodontal diseases between diabetics and nondiabetics.A literature search was performed using MEDLINE database for published studies from January 1970 through October 2003 with manual search for references in relevant studies. This meta-analysis was based on 18 comparative cross-sectional studies, three prospective cohort studies and baseline data of two clinical trials that compared oral hygiene, gingival and periodontal status between diabetics and nondiabetics. Heterogeneity was obvious among included studies; therefore, the analysis using random-effects model was conducted.This study demonstrated that diabetics had significantly worse oral hygiene as measured by the average of plaque index (P1I), higher severity of gingival disease as measured by the average of gingival index (GI) and higher severity of periodontal disease as measured by the average of probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). However, diabetics had similar extent of oral hygiene, gingival and periodontal disease as measured by percentages of surfaces or sites with specific scores of P1I, GI, bleeding on probing (BOP), PPD and CAL.Diabetics had a significantly higher severity but the same extent of periodontal disease than nondiabetics.
Pub.: 04 Jan '06, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Over 200 articles have been published in the English literature over the past 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of diabetes and periodontitis and different clinical criteria applied to prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontal diseases, levels of glycemic control, and complications associated with diabetes.This article provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research published in English over the past 20 years, with reference to certain "classic" articles published prior to that time.This article describes current diagnostic and classification criteria for diabetes and answers the following questions: 1) Does diabetes affect the risk of periodontitis, and does the level of metabolic control of diabetes have an impact on this relationship? 2) Do periodontal diseases affect the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus or the metabolic control of diabetes? 3) What are the mechanisms by which these two diseases interrelate? and 4) How do people with diabetes and periodontal disease respond to periodontal treatment?Diabetes increases the risk of periodontal diseases, and biologically plausible mechanisms have been demonstrated in abundance. Less clear is the impact of periodontal diseases on glycemic control of diabetes and the mechanisms through which this occurs. Inflammatory periodontal diseases may increase insulin resistance in a way similar to obesity, thereby aggravating glycemic control. Further research is needed to clarify this aspect of the relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes.
Pub.: 03 Aug '06, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: This report reviews the evidence for adverse effects of diabetes on periodontal health and periodontal disease on glycemic control and complications of diabetes.MEDLINE search of the English language literature identified primary research reports published on (a) relationships between diabetes and periodontal diseases since 2000 and (b) effects of periodontal infection on glycemic control and diabetes complications since 1960.Observational studies provided consistent evidence of greater prevalence, severity, extent, or progression of at least one manifestation of periodontal disease in 13/17 reports reviewed. Treatment and longitudinal observational studies provided evidence to support periodontal infection having an adverse effect on glycemic control, although not all investigations reported an improvement in glycemic control after periodontal treatment. Additionally, evidence from three observational studies supported periodontal disease increasing the risk for diabetes complications and no published reports refuted the findings.The evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and periodontal infection having an adverse effect on glycemic control and incidence of diabetes complications. Further rigorous study is necessary to establish unequivocally that treating periodontal infections can contribute to glycemic control management and to the reduction of the burden of diabetes complications.
Pub.: 14 Mar '08, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: There is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus (DM). Many patients are unaware of the effects of diabetes on oral health. Whether health care providers are applying the information about the link between DM and periodontal diseases in their practices depends on the levels of their knowledge of such valuable information. Therefore, the aims of this study are to evaluate the knowledge of dental and medical practitioners concerning the effects of diabetes on periodontal health and to find out if the practitioners are aware of the bidirectional relationship between periodontal diseases and DM.This was a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected general practitioners practicing in Kuwait. Participants were asked about specific periodontal complications that they believed patients diagnosed with diabetes were more susceptible to, and their awareness of the bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases was evaluated.A total of 510 general practitioners (232 physicians and 278 dentists) participated in the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding mean ages, sex distributions, and years in practice. Only 50% of all study participants believed that patients with diabetes were more susceptible to tooth loss because of periodontal diseases than were individuals without diabetes. Dentists were significantly more aware of gingival bleeding, tooth mobility, and alveolar bone resorption than were physicians. Factors significantly associated with having knowledge about the effects of diabetes on periodontal health in logistic regression analyses were older age, female sex, and the dental profession.The knowledge about the association between periodontal diseases and DM should be increased among dental and medical practitioners to effectively prevent, manage, and control diabetes and periodontal diseases.
Pub.: 14 Sep '10, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the "certain" articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1) Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2) Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3) What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4) What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene.
Pub.: 07 Jul '11, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: A bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal diseases (PDs) has been established. It is estimated that patients with poorly controlled DM are 3 times more likely to develop chronic PD compared with normoglycemic individuals despite similar composition in subgingival biofilms. Furthermore, these patients present with increased severity and rapid progression of attachment loss around teeth resulting in edentulism. Treatment of PD results in a modest but significant improvement in glycemic control in patients with DM reflected by a 0.4 % reduction in HbA1c-glycated hemoglobin levels. Compelling evidence from in vitro and animal studies supports a plausible biological explanation for the relationship between the 2 conditions centered on systemic low-grade inflammation. However, the limited number of comparable large randomized clinical trials is reflected in the limited specific guidelines offered by the international organizations for DM and PD regarding the management of the 2 diseases in an individual.
Pub.: 23 Feb '13, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: Diabetes and periodontitis are complex chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. There is long-established evidence that hyperglycaemia in diabetes is associated with adverse periodontal outcomes. However, given the ubiquity of periodontal diseases and the emerging global diabetes epidemic, the complications of which contribute to significant morbidity and premature mortality, it is timely to review the role of periodontitis in diabetes.To report the epidemiological evidence from cross-sectional, prospective and intervention studies for the impact of periodontal disease on diabetes incidence, control and complications and to identify potential underpinning mechanisms.Over the last 20 years, consistent and robust evidence has emerged that severe periodontitis adversely affects glycaemic control in diabetes and glycaemia in non-diabetes subjects. In diabetes patients, there is a direct and dose-dependent relationship between periodontitis severity and diabetes complications. Emerging evidence supports an increased risk for diabetes onset in patients with severe periodontitis.Type 2 diabetes is preceded by systemic inflammation, leading to reduced pancreatic β-cell function, apoptosis and insulin resistance. Increasing evidence supports elevated systemic inflammation (acute-phase and oxidative stress biomarkers) resulting from the entry of periodontal organisms and their virulence factors into the circulation, providing biological plausibility for the effects of periodontitis on diabetes. AGE (Advanced Glycation Endproducts)-RAGE (Receptor for AGEs) interactions and oxidative-stress-mediated pathways provide plausible mechanistic links in the diabetes to periodontitis direction.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) consistently demonstrate that mechanical periodontal therapy associates with approximately a 0.4% reduction in HbA1C at 3 months, a clinical impact equivalent to adding a second drug to a pharmacological regime for diabetes. RCTs are needed with larger numbers of subjects and longer term follow-up, and if results are substantiated, adjunctive periodontal therapies subsequently need to be evaluated. There is no current evidence to support adjunctive use of antimicrobials for periodontal management of diabetes patients.Given the current evidence, it is timely to provide guidelines for periodontal care in diabetes patients for medical and dental professionals and recommendations for patients/the public.
Pub.: 03 May '13, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: The association between diabetes and inflammatory periodontal diseases has been studied extensively. However, there is a lack of robustness and homogeneity among studies describing effects of periodontal treatment on glycemic control. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis to understand whether periodontal treatment could improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Electronic searches were carried out on MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials from 1980 to July 2012. Randomized controlled trials of periodontal therapy on glycemic control in diabetic patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were included. Meta-analysis was carried out with 8 studies involving 515 participants using Stata 11.0 software. Our results showed that periodontal treatment could lead to a significant decrease in HbA1c level. The standardized mean difference between intervention groups and control groups was significant: 1.03% (95% confidence interval: 0.31% to 1.70%, P = 0.003) from baseline to 3 months, and 1.18% (95% confidence interval: 0.72% to 1.64%, P < 0.001) from baseline to 6 months. Periodontal treatment could lead to a non-significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels from baseline to 3 months. The standardized mean difference between the intervention and the control group was 0.69 mg/dl (95% confidence interval: -0.27 mg/dl to 1.66 mg/dl, P = 0.158). Our analysis indicated that periodontal treatment could improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal diseases.
Pub.: 13 Jan '15, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: Escalating prevalence of both diabetes and periodontal disease, two diseases associated with bidirectional exacerbation, has been reported. Periodontal disease represents a modifiable risk factor that may reduce diabetes onset or progression, and integrated models of cross-disciplinary care are needed to establish and manage glycemic control in affected patients. An ad-hoc environmental scan of current literature and media sought to characterize factors impacting status of integrated care models based on review of the existing evidence base in literature and media surrounding: 1) current cross-disciplinary practice patterns, 2) epidemiological updates, 3) status on risk assessment and screening for dysglycemia in the dental setting, 4) status on implementation of quality metrics for oral health, 5) care model pilots, and 6) public health perspectives. The survey revealed: escalating prevalence of diabetes and periodontitis globally; greater emphasis on oral health assessment for diabetic patients in recent medical clinical practice guidelines; high knowledgeability surrounding oral-systemic impacts on diabetes and growing receptivity to medical-dental integration among medical and dental providers; increasing numbers of programs/studies reporting on positive impact of emerging integrated dental-medical care models on diabetic patient healthcare access and health outcomes; a growing evidence base for clinically significant rates of undiagnosed dysglycemia among dental patients reported by point-of-care pilot studies; no current recommendation for population-based screening for dysglycemia in dental settings pending a stronger evidence base; improved definition of true periodontitis prevalence in (pre)/diabetics; emerging recognition of the need for oral health quality indicators and tracking; evidence of persistence in dental access disparity; updated status on barriers to integration. The potential benefit of creating clinically-applicable integrated care models to support holistic management of an escalating diabetic population by targeting modifiable risk factors including periodontitis is being recognized by the health industry. Cross-disciplinary efforts supported by high quality research are needed to mitigate previously- and newly-defined barriers of care integration and expedite development and implementation of integrated care models in various practice settings. Implementation of quality monitoring in the dental setting will support definition of the impact and efficacy of interventional clinical care models on patient outcomes.
Pub.: 05 Apr '17, Pinned: 30 Sep '17
Abstract: Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). It is highly prevalent (severe periodontitis affects 10-15% of adults) and has multiple negative impacts on quality of life. Epidemiological data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear relationship between degree of hyperglycaemia and severity of periodontitis. The mechanisms that underpin the links between these two conditions are not completely understood, but involve aspects of immune functioning, neutrophil activity, and cytokine biology. There is emerging evidence to support the existence of a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with diabetes increasing the risk for periodontitis, and periodontal inflammation negatively affecting glycaemic control. Incidences of macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease are increased twofold and threefold, respectively, in diabetic individuals who also have severe periodontitis compared to diabetic individuals without severe periodontitis. Furthermore, the risk of cardiorenal mortality (ischaemic heart disease and diabetic nephropathy combined) is three times higher in diabetic people with severe periodontitis than in diabetic people without severe periodontitis. Treatment of periodontitis is associated with HbA(1c) reductions of approximately 0.4%. Oral and periodontal health should be promoted as integral components of diabetes management.
Pub.: 08 Nov '11, Pinned: 30 Sep '17