Academic(Lecturer), University of Port Hacourt, Nigeria
Bioprospecting for biopesticides from Nigerian mycoflora
Interest in flora derived agrochemicals has continued to be on the rise with the view of reducing economic loss due to field and post-harvest crops spoilage. Flora derived agrochemicals are easily biodegradable and safe to the ecosystem compared to the more expensive synthetic derivatives. This study reports the insecticidal potentials of extracts (dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) and isolated secondary metabolites from a selected lichen and mushroom species in the Nigeria mycoflora. Insecticidal assay was done against field termites from cultivated farmlands, post harvest maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais and bean weevil Acanthosceides obtectus. Student t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The observed trends in the agrochemical potentials of the extracts and isolated secondary metabolites and their application in field and post-harvest crop protection is discussed.
Abstract: Mimosa pigra L. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) is a large shrub native to tropical America and economically important as a medicinal plant; it is also an invasive plant and a noxious weed. M. pigra leaves were air-dried, pulverised and extracted with 96 % ethanol. The ethanol extract (MPEE) was partitioned with diethyl ether (DEE) and ethyl acetate (EA) in succession to yield DEE fraction (DEEF), EA fraction (EAF) and EA insoluble fraction (EAIF). Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography (GFC) of the EAF and semi-preparative HPLC purification of the GFC sub-fractions afforded two new acylated flavonol glycosides [myricetin (2”-O-galloyl)-3-O-α-L rhamnopyranoside, I; and quercetin (2”-O-galloyl)-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, II] in M. pigra. Alongside three other flavonol glycosides (myricetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, III; quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, IV; and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, V). The structures of compounds I–V were assigned by ultraviolet/visible (UV) spectroscopy, 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Myricetin, quercetin and their glycoside derivatives are strong antioxidants; and elicit cytotoxic effect on human cancer cell lines among other pharmacological activities. The isolation of acylated flavonoids in M. pigra provided an important insight on the evolutionary trend of the medicinal plant. While the dominance of flavonols, may account for the various ethnomedicinal uses of the herb and the mechanism and mode of its confirmed pharmacological actions.
Pub.: 20 Aug '16, Pinned: 08 Sep '17