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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Aina Odusola

Principal Medical Officer / General Practitioner, General Hospital, Apapa / Lagos State Health Service Commission

PINBOARD SUMMARY

Patient-centered health education to prevent cardiovascular diseases among hypertensive patients

Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) diseases. Cardiovascular diseases themselves are a major cause of ill health and premature death. In sub Saharan Africa although prevalence of hypertension is high treatment coverage is undesirably quite low and control poor. With prevalence rate of about 29% Nigeria is substantially affected with hypertension. To limit resulting ill health and premature death associated with cardiovascular diseases effective preventive and control measures are urgently needed. Furthermore sustainable access to affordable primary health care is not just desirable but also indispensable for a successful control effort. In addition, implementing quality hypertension care in accordance with international guidelines is equally important. Unfortunately however Nigeria where hypertension currently affects about a quarter of the population currently has a weak and poorly developed health system. Furthermore poverty is rampant and sustainable access to affordable care is lacking. This has negative effects on regional control efforts for heart and blood vessel diseases. One promising approach to address this issue is to focus control efforts on interventions that have capacity to help hypertensive patients comply with intricate details of prescribed anti-hypertensive treatment and thereby limit cardiovascular diseases. Such interventions among others include providing tailored educational counseling programs. But educational counseling has always been part of the usual primary care offered for hypertension care in Nigeria in accordance with standard guidelines. Yet hypertension control remains poor and cardiovascular diseases frequently develop among hypertensive patients. This may imply that a key or important factor is missing in the current management regime. This may be the mode, form, content or delivery format of the educational counseling offered in usual hypertension care. What could this missing link be? Could it be that the offered usual care education was not attractive or acceptable enough to the target population because it did not address their specific needs with regards to cultural relevance? To provide answer to these puzzles, in the current study first we removed barriers to access quality hypertension care using affordable health insurance, second we developed a special cardiovascular health education program, tested and applied it and got promising outcomes.

20 ITEMS PINNED

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the performance of a risk score among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: a cross-sectional population-based study.

Abstract: While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is high, tailored risk scores for screening among South Asian and African origin populations are lacking. The aim of this study was, first, to compare the prevalence of (known and newly detected) DM among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch (Dutch). Second, to develop a new risk score for DM. Third, to evaluate the performance of the risk score and to compare it to criteria derived from current guidelines.We conducted a cross-sectional population based study among 336 Hindustani Surinamese, 593 African Surinamese and 486 Dutch, aged 35-60 years, in Amsterdam. Logistic regressing analyses were used to derive a risk score based on non-invasively determined characteristics. The diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic curve (AUC).Hindustani Surinamese had the highest prevalence of DM, followed by African Surinamese and Dutch: 16.7, 8.1, 4.2% (age 35-44) and 35.0, 19.0, 8.2% (age 45-60), respectively. The risk score included ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, resting heart rate, first-degree relative with DM, hypertension and history of cardiovascular disease. Selection based on age alone showed the lowest AUC: between 0.57-0.62. The AUC of our score (0.74-0.80) was higher than that of criteria from guidelines based solely on age and BMI and as high as criteria that required invasive specimen collection.In Hindustani Surinamese and African Surinamese populations, screening for DM should not be limited to those over 45 years, as is advocated in several guidelines. If selective screening is indicated, our ethnicity based risk score performs well as a screening test for DM among these groups, particularly compared to the criteria based on age and/or body mass index derived from current guidelines.

Pub.: 05 Aug '08, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension.

Abstract: To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands.We included 361 participants without hypertension at baseline (147 ethnic Dutch, 82 South Asian Surinamese, 132 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured at baseline and after mean 9 years of follow-up. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses, with hypertension at follow up as a dependent variable.Body weight, fat distribution and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of developing hypertension; these associations did not statistically significantly differ between ethnic groups [odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per SD: BMI 1.5 (1.2-2.0); waist circumference 1.5 (1.2-1.9); waist to hip ratio (WHR) 1.4 (1.1-1.9), weight gain of 1-2.9 kg/m 1.8 (0.9-3.8)]. As compared with Dutch, a higher incidence of hypertension was found among South Asian Surinamese [OR 2.6 (1.4-4.8)] and in particular among African Surinamese [OR 3.1 (1.76-5.30)]. Among South Asian Surinamese, adjustment for WHR attenuated the OR the most [OR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)]; among African Surinamese, the strongest effect was observed for adjustment by BMI and WHR simultaneously [OR 2.5 (1.4-4.4)].The ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension among a middle-aged group with a Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background were partly explained by body composition. This suggests that other factors may be involved, including genetic factors or unidentified other determinants.

Pub.: 27 Feb '14, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

Abstract: Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014.Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time.Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends). From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p < 0.0001 for trends). Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period.In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

Pub.: 27 Jul '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Ethnic differences in the effect of environmental stressors on blood pressure and hypertension in the Netherlands.

Abstract: Evidence strongly suggests that the neighbourhood in which people live influences their health. Despite this, investigations of ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors have focused mainly on individual-level characteristics. The main purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neighbourhood-level environmental stressors (crime, housing density, nuisance from alcohol and drug misuse, quality of green space and social participation), and blood pressure (BP) and hypertension among different ethnic groups.Individual data from the Amsterdam Health Survey 2004 were linked to data on neighbourhood stressors creating a multilevel design for data analysis. The study sample consisted of 517 Dutch, 404 Turkish and 365 Moroccans living in 15 neighbourhoods in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Amongst Moroccans, high density housing and nuisance from drug misuse were associated with a higher systolic BP, while high quality of green space and social participation were associated with a lower systolic BP. High level of nuisance from drug misuse was associated with a higher diastolic BP. High quality of green space was associated with lower odds of hypertension. Amongst Turkish, high level of crime and nuisance from motor traffic were associated with a higher diastolic BP. Similar associations were observed among the Dutch group but none of the differences were statistically significant.The study findings show that neighbourhood-level stressors are associated with BP in ethnic minority groups but were less evident in the Dutch group. These findings might imply that the higher BP levels found in some ethnic minority groups might be partly due to their greater susceptibility to the adverse neighbourhood environment in which many ethnic minority people live. Primary prevention measures targeting these neighbourhood stressors may have an impact in reducing high BP related morbidity and mortality among ethnic minority groups.

Pub.: 26 Jun '07, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Development and evaluation of a patient centered cardiovascular health education program for insured patients in rural Nigeria (QUICK - II).

Abstract: In Sub Saharan Africa, the incidence of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is growing rapidly. Poor adherence to prescribed prevention and treatment regimens by patients can compromise treatment outcomes. Patient-centered cardiovascular health education is likely to improve shortcomings in adherence. This paper describes a study that aims to develop a cardiovascular health education program for patients participating in a subsidized insurance plan in Nigeria and to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness in patients at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.The study has two parts. Part 1 will develop a cardiovascular health education program, using qualitative interviews with stakeholders. Part 2 will evaluate the effectiveness of the program in patients, using a prospective (pre-post) observational design.A rural primary health center in Kwara State, Nigeria.For part 1: 40 patients, 10 healthcare professionals, and 5 insurance managers. For part 2: 150 patients with uncontrolled hypertension or other cardiovascular risk factors after one year of treatment.Part 2: patient-centered cardiovascular health education program.Part 1: Semi-structured interviews to identify stakeholder perspectives. Part 2: Pre- and post-intervention assessments including patients' demographic and socioeconomic data, blood pressure, body mass index and self-reporting measures on medication adherence and perception of care. Feasibility of the intervention will be measured using process data.For program development (part 1): overview of healthcare professionals' perceptions on barriers and facilitators to care, protocol for patient education, and protocol implementation plan.For program evaluation (part 2): changes in patients' scores on adherence to medication and life style changes, blood pressure, and other physiological and self-reporting measures at six months past baseline.Part 1: content analytic technique utilizing MAXQDA software. Part 2: univariate and multilevel analysis to assess outcomes of intervention.Diligent implementation of patient-centered education should enhance adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention and management programs in low income countries.ISRCTN47894401.

Pub.: 23 Mar '11, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Cardiovascular disease prevention in rural Nigeria in the context of a community based health insurance scheme: QUality Improvement Cardiovascular care Kwara-I (QUICK-I).

Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Guidelines for CVD prevention care in low resource settings have been developed but little information is available on strategies to implement this care. A community health insurance program might be used to improve patients' access to care. The operational research project "QUality Improvement Cardiovascular care Kwara - I (QUICK-I)" aims to assess the feasibility of CVD prevention care in rural Nigeria, according to international guidelines, in the context of a community based health insurance scheme.prospective observational hospital based cohort study.a primary health care centre in rural Nigeria.300 patients at risk for development of CVD (patients with hypertension, diabetes, renal disease or established CVD) who are enrolled in the Hygeia Community Health Plan.demographic and socio- economic data, physical and laboratory examination, CVD risk profile including screening for target organ damage. MEASUREMENTS will be done at 3 month intervals during 1 year. Direct and indirect costs of CVD prevention care will be estimated.1) The adjusted cardiovascular quality of care indicator scores based on the "United Kingdom National Health Services Quality and Outcome Framework". 2) The average costs of CVD prevention and treatment per patient per year for patients, the clinic and the insurance company. 3) The estimated net health care costs of standard CVD prevention care per quality-adjusted life year gained.The primary outcomes, the score on CVD quality indicators and cost data will be descriptive. The quality scores and cost data will be used to describe the feasibility of CVD prevention care according to international guidelines. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be done using a Markov model.Results of QUICK-I can be used by policy makers and professionals who aim to implement CVD prevention programs in settings with limited resources. The context of the insurance program will provide insight in the opportunities community health insurance may offer to attain sustainable chronic disease management programs in low resource settings.This protocol has been registered at ISRCTN, ID number: ISRCTN47894401.

Pub.: 29 Mar '11, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Vitamin D status partly explains ethnic differences in blood pressure: the 'Surinamese in the Netherlands: study on ethnicity and health'.

Abstract: To investigate the role of vitamin D in explaining ethnic differences in blood pressure among three ethnic groups in the Netherlands (ethnic Dutch, African Surinamese, and south Asian Surinamese).Data were derived from the 'Surinamese in the Netherlands: study on ethnicity and health' study, a population-based observational study. We included 1420 participants (505 ethnic Dutch, 330 south Asian Surinamese, and 585 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and SBP and DBP were measured. Data were analyzed by using linear (SBP, DBP) and logistic (hypertension) regression analyses, using ethnicity as independent variable and adjusting for potential confounders. To study the impact of vitamin D, we additionally adjusted for vitamin D in a final model.South Asian Surinamese had a 5.6 mmHg higher SBP and 4.9 mmHg higher DBP as compared with the Dutch after adjustment for age, sex, season, physical activity, smoking, education, and BMI. Further adjustment for vitamin D explained 14 and 6% of these SBP and DBP differences, respectively. African Surinamese had an 8.9 mmHg higher SBP and 6.8 mmHg higher DBP as compared with the Dutch. Variation in vitamin D explained 7 and 4% of these SBP and DBP differences. South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese had 2.2 (1.5-3.2) and 3.3 (2.4-4.6) times higher odds of having hypertension compared with ethnic Dutch. Vitamin D explained 25 and 17% of the variations in SBP and DBP, respectively, resulting in odds ratio of 1.9 (1.3-2.9) and 2.9 (2.0-4.3), respectively.Higher blood pressures and higher hypertension risk in south Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese were partly explained by their poorer vitamin D status. However, even after adjustment, significant ethnic blood pressure differences persisted.

Pub.: 19 May '12, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Target organ damage among hypertensive adults in rural Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

Abstract: To study the prevalence of target organ damage (TOD) in hypertensive adults in a general population in rural Nigeria, to assess determinants of TOD and the contribution of TOD screening to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment.All adults diagnosed with hypertension (n=387) and a random sample (n=540) out of all nonhypertensive adults, classified during a household survey in 2009, had a blood pressure measurement and were invited for TOD (myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, angina pectoris, kidney disease) screening in 2011.Participation in TOD screening was 51% (n=196) in respondents with hypertension and 33% (n=179) in those without hypertension. TOD prevalence in hypertensive and nonhypertensive adults was 32 and 15%, respectively. Hypertension severity was a strong determinant for TOD [grade 1 odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)1.04-6.84; grade 2 OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.41-10.36]. Out of 196 hypertensive patients, 151 were untreated, of whom all grade 2 hypertensive patients (n=71) were eligible for treatment. Screening revealed TOD in 19 out of 80 grade 1 hypertensive respondents (24%), therefore also classifying them as eligible for treatment. TOD screening hypertensive nonrespondents had more severe hypertension than hypertensive respondents, which may have resulted in an underestimation of the true prevalence of TOD among adults with hypertension.A high prevalence of 32% TOD in hypertensive adults in rural Nigeria was observed. Almost a quarter of respondents with grade 1 hypertension were eligible for antihypertensive treatment based on TOD screening findings. As TOD screening is mostly unavailable in sub-Saharan Africa, we propose antihypertensive treatment for all patients with hypertension.

Pub.: 05 Dec '13, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Feasibility and quality of cardiovascular disease prevention within a community-based health insurance program in rural Nigeria: an operational cohort study.

Abstract: To assess the feasibility of providing guideline-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care within the context of a community-based health insurance program (CBHI) in rural Nigeria.A prospective operational cohort study was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria, participating in a CBHI program. The insurance program provided access to care and improved the quality of the clinics participating in the program, including CVD prevention guideline implementation. Insured adults at risk of CVD were consecutively included upon clinic attendance. The primary outcome was quality of care determined by scoring of quality indicators on patient files of the cohort, 1.5 year after guideline implementation.Of the 368 screened patients, 349 were included and 323 (93%) completed 1 year of follow-up. The majority of patients (331, 95%) had hypertension. Process indicators showed that 114/115 (99%) new hypertension cases had a record of CVD risk assessment and 249/333 (75%) eligible cases a record of lifestyle advice. Outcome indicators showed that in 292/328 (64%) hypertension cases, blood pressure was on target. Barriers to care included limited human resources, limited affordability of diagnostic tests and multidrug regimes for the healthcare provider, frequent doctor's appointments, and inefficient drug supplies.Implementation of CVD prevention care within the context of a CBHI program resulted in high-quality care in rural sub-Saharan Africa, comparable to high-income countries. However, guideline implementation was resource-intense and specific recommendations were not feasible. Simple models of care delivery are needed for rapid scale-up of CVD prevention services in sub-Saharan Africa.

Pub.: 08 Nov '14, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Costs of cardiovascular disease prevention care and scenarios for cost saving: a micro-costing study from rural Nigeria.

Abstract: To assess the costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care according to international guidelines, in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria, participating in a health insurance programme.A micro-costing study was conducted from a healthcare provider perspective. Activities per patient per year (e.g., consultations, diagnostic tests) were based on clinical practice in the study clinic. Direct (e.g., staff, drugs) and indirect cost items (overheads) for each activity were measured. A cohort study, patient and staff observations, and interviews in the study clinic provided patient resource utilization data. Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. Scenario analyses evaluated cost-saving options. The main outcome was the costs of CVD prevention care per patient per year.The costs of CVD prevention care were United States dollars (USD) 144 (range 130-158) per patient per year. Direct costs were USD 82 and indirect costs were USD 62. The main cost drivers were drugs (USD 39) and diagnostic tests (USD 36). The costs of hypertension care were USD 118 (107-132) and that of diabetes care USD 263 (236-289) per patient per year. A combination of task-shifting from doctors to nurses, reduction of appointment frequencies, and minimal organ damage screening would result in a direct cost reduction of 42%.This is the first study to report the costs of CVD prevention care in sub-Saharan Africa, based on prospectively collected operational data. The costs observed in our study are unaffordable in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need for innovative financing mechanisms to fund CVD prevention care.

Pub.: 08 Nov '14, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Perceptions of inhibitors and facilitators for adhering to hypertension treatment among insured patients in rural Nigeria: a qualitative study.

Abstract: Universal health care coverage has been identified as a promising strategy for improving hypertension treatment and control rates in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Yet, even when quality care is accessible, poor adherence can compromise treatment outcomes. To provide information for adherence support interventions, this study explored what low income patients who received hypertension care in the context of a community based health insurance program in Nigeria perceive as inhibitors and facilitators for adhering to pharmacotherapy and healthy behaviors.We conducted a qualitative interview study with 40 insured hypertensive patients who had received hypertension care for > 1 year in a rural primary care hospital in Kwara state, Nigeria. Supported by MAXQDA software, interview transcripts were inductively coded. Codes were then grouped into concepts and thematic categories, leading to matrices for inhibitors and facilitators of treatment adherence.Important patient-identified facilitators of medication adherence included: affordability of care (through health insurance); trust in orthodox "western" medicines; trust in Doctor; dreaded dangers of hypertension; and use of prayer to support efficacy of pills. Inhibitors of medication adherence included: inconvenient clinic operating hours; long waiting times; under-dispensing of prescriptions; side-effects of pills; faith motivated changes of medication regimen; herbal supplementation/substitution of pills; and ignorance that regular use is needed. Local practices and norms were identified as important inhibitors to the uptake of healthier behaviors (e.g. use of salt for food preservation; negative cultural images associated with decreased body size and physical activity). Important factors facilitating such behaviors were the awareness that salt substitutes and products for composing healthier meals were cheaply available at local markets and that exercise could be integrated in people's daily activities (e.g. farming, yam pounding, and household chores).With a better understanding of patient perceived inhibitors and facilitators of adherence to hypertension treatment, this study provides information for patient education and health system level interventions that can be designed to improve compliance.ISRCTN47894401 .

Pub.: 11 Dec '14, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Factors Associated with Medication Nonadherence among Hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria.

Abstract: Background. Blood pressure (BP) control is poor among hypertensives in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. A potentially modifiable factor for control of BP is medication nonadherence (MNA); our study therefore aimed to determine factors associated with MNA among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria. Methodology. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu Hospital (n = 120), Ghana; and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, (n = 73) Apapa General Hospital Lagos (n = 79) and University College Hospital Ibadan (n = 85), Nigeria. Results. 357 hypertensive patients (42.6% males) participated. MNA was found in 66.7%. Adherence showed correlation with depression (r = -0.208, P < 0.001), concern about medications (r = -0.0347, P = 0.002), and knowledge of hypertension (r = 0.14, P = 0.006). MNA was associated with formal education (P = 0.001) and use of herbal preparation (P = 0.014). MNA was found in 61.7% of uninsured participants versus 73.1% of insured participants (P = 0.032). Poor BP control was observed in 69.7% and there was significant association between MNA and poor BP control (P = 0.006). Conclusion. MNA is high among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria and is associated with depression, concern about hypertensive medications, formal education, and use of herbal preparations. The negative association between health insurance and MNA suggests interplay of other factors and needs further investigation.

Pub.: 29 Oct '15, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the slums of Nairobi: the SCALE-UP study.

Abstract: Background A combination of increasing urbanization, behaviour change, and lack of health services in slums put the urban poor specifically at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a community-based CVD prevention intervention on blood pressure (BP) and other CVD risk factors in a slum setting in Nairobi, Kenya. Design Prospective intervention study includes awareness campaigns, household visits for screening, and referral and treatment of people with hypertension. The primary outcome was overall change in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), while secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of hypertension and other CVD risk factors. We evaluated the intervention's impact through consecutive cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after 18 months, comparing outcomes of intervention and control group, through a difference-in-difference method. Results We screened 1,531 and 1,233 participants in the intervention and control sites. We observed a significant reduction in mean SBP when comparing before and after measurements in both intervention and control groups, -2.75 mmHg (95% CI -4.33 to -1.18, p=0.001) and -1.67 mmHg (95% CI -3.17 to -0.17, p=0.029), respectively. Among people with hypertension at baseline, SBP was reduced by -14.82 mmHg (95% CI -18.04 to -11.61, p<0.001) in the intervention and -14.05 (95% CI -17.71 to -10.38, p<0.001) at the control site. However, comparing these two groups, we found no difference in changes in mean SBP or hypertension prevalence. Conclusions We found significant declines in SBP over time in both intervention and control groups. However, we found no additional effect of a community-based intervention involving awareness campaigns, screening, referral, and treatment. Possible explanations include the beneficial effect of baseline measurements in the control group on behaviour and related BP levels, and the limited success of treatment and suboptimal adherence in the intervention group.

Pub.: 06 Feb '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers.

Abstract: Background Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11) and health insurance managers (n=4). Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Results Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider-insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. Conclusions By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.

Pub.: 06 Feb '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Comparison of domains of self-reported physical activity between Kenyan adult urban-slum dwellers and national estimates.

Abstract: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - largely the result of modifiable behavioral risks such as physical inactivity that gradually develop into physiological risks - are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Kenya, a nationally representative STEPwise survey of risk factors for NCDs established that 10.8% of Kenyans accumulated low levels of total physical activity.The goal of our analyses was to compare domains of self-reported physical activity in two Nairobi slums to national estimates.Levels and time of self-reported activity in three domains (work, transport, and recreation), collected as part of a SCALE-UP study conducted in Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi, were compared to STEPwise findings.The samples included a total of 10,128 participants (5,628 slum, 4,500 national). Only 7.1% and 4.0% of slum dwellers reported low levels of work and transport physical activity, respectively, but 95.9% reported low levels of recreation-related activity. Slum residents reported higher mean daily minutes of total activity than the national estimate (499 minutes versus 291 minutes), however, both samples spent similar proportions of total activity on work (79.0% slum, 78.3% national), transport (20.4% slum, 18.1% national), and recreation (0.6% slum, 3.6% national) activities.While the total amount of time spent in different domains of self-reported activity differs between urban slum residents and the national Kenyan population, proportions of time in each of the three domains are similar. It is important that such differences or similarities be considered when addressing NCD risk factors in these populations.

Pub.: 19 Jul '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Smoking-related general and cause-specific mortality in Estonia.

Abstract: Tobacco smoking is known to be the single largest cause of premature death worldwide. The aim of present study was to analyse the effect of smoking on general and cause-specific mortality in the Estonian population.The data from 51,756 adults in the Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu was used. Information on dates and causes of death was retrieved from the National Causes of Death Registry. Smoking status, general survival, general mortality and cause-specific mortality were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards models.The study found that smoking reduces median survival in men by 11.4 years and in women by 5.8 years. Tobacco smoking produces a very specific pattern in the cause of deaths, significantly increasing the risks for different cancers and cardiovascular diseases as causes of death for men and women. This study also identified that external causes, such as alcohol intoxication and intentional self-harm, are more prevalent causes of death among smokers than non-smokers. Additionally, smoking cessation was found to reverse the increased risks for premature mortality.Tobacco smoking remains the major cause for losses of life inducing cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the common diseases, external causes also reduce substantially the years of life. External causes of death indicate that smoking has a long-term influence on the behaviour of smokers, provoking self-destructive behaviour. Our study supports the idea, that tobacco smoking generates complex harm to our health increasing mortality from both somatic and mental disorders.

Pub.: 21 Jul '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

Abstract: Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size.The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg.Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans.This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The study also showed a positive association between BMR and blood pressure among the participants. A large scale longitudinal study across the country is needed to find out the underlying causes of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults. In addition, comprehensive and integrated intervention programs focusing on modifiable risk factors are recommended to make awareness and prevent hypertension.

Pub.: 27 Jul '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

A lifestyle intervention study targeting individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins: important aspects for successful implementation.

Abstract: Evaluation of the implementation process of trials is important, because the way a study is implemented modifies its outcomes. Furthermore, lessons learned during implementation can inform other researchers on factors that play a role when implementing interventions described in research. This study evaluates the implementation of the MetSLIM study, targeting individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins. The MetSLIM study was set up to evaluate the effectiveness of a lifestyle programme on waist circumference and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The objective of this evaluation was to identify components that were essential for the implementation of the MetSLIM study and to inform other researchers on methodological aspects when working with inadequately reached populations in health research.In this evaluation study the experiences of health professionals, study assistants, a community worker and regional research coordinators involved in the MetSLIM study were explored using semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were used to evaluate participants' satisfaction with the lifestyle intervention.Our analyses show that a flexible recruitment protocol eventually leads to recruitment of sufficient participants; that trust in the recruiter is an important factor in the recruitment of individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins; and that health professionals will unavoidably shape the form of intervention activities. Furthermore, our evaluation shows that daily practice and research mutually influence each other and that the results of an intervention are a product of this interaction.Health promotion research would benefit from a perspective that sees intervention activities not as fixed entities but rather as social interaction that can take on numerous forms. Analysing and reporting the implementation process of studies, like in this evaluation, will allow readers to get a detailed view on the appropriateness of the (intended) study design and intervention for the targeted population. Evaluation studies that shed light on the reasons for adaptations, rather than describing them as deviation from the original plan, would point out methodological aspects important for a study's replication. Furthermore, they would show how various factors can influence the implementation, and therewith initiate a learning cycle for the development of future intervention studies.Netherlands Trial Register NTR3721 (since November 27, 2012).

Pub.: 27 Jul '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17

Knowledge of non-communicable diseases and practices related to healthy lifestyles among adolescents, in state schools of a selected educational division in Sri Lanka.

Abstract: Behaviors established during the adolescence have life-long consequences to the onset of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in later life. Therefore, it is essential to understand adolescents' knowledge and practices with the intention of developing preventive programs focusing on this age group. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge about selected NCDs, and lifestyle choices among school students aged 17-19 years in state schools of the Maharagama Educational Division, Sri Lanka.A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 17-19 years attending state schools in Maharagama Education Division. A total of 634 students were selected from 9 schools conducting Advance Level classes. Stratified sampling was done based on stream of study and the number needed from each stratum was decided according to probability proportionate to size which was followed by cluster sampling within the strata to select the classes included. Data were collected using a self-administered-questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and economic status; lifestyle-related practices; knowledge on Non-Communicable -Diseases. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations.Proportion students with good overall knowledge was 43%(n = 272). Forty-three percent (n = 275) consumed a healthy diet, and 20%(n = 129) engaged in adequate physical activity 3%(n = 18) of students were current smokers and 12%(n = 73) current alcohol users 12%(n = 73). Overall "good" knowledge about NCDs was associated with being a science stream student(OR = 3.3; 95%CI:2.1-5.2). Healthy diet was associated with female sex (OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.5-3.0), and adequate physical activity with male sex (OR = 2.1; 95% CI:1.4-3.2), non-science-stream (OR = 2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7) and upper socio economic status (OR = 2.0; 95%CI:1.3-3.0). Non-smoking was associated with overall good knowledge (OR = 4.1; 95%CI:1.2-13.7) and female sex (OR = 0;95%CI:1.5-infinity). Abstinence from alcohol was associated with being a female (OR = 6.9; 95%CI:3.4-13.9), and with mother and fathers' education level of > General-Certificate of Examinations Ordinary Level (GCE O/L) (OR = 2.9; 95%CI:1.1-8.4 and OR = 3.5; 95%CI:1.1-11.2 respectively).Knowledge about NCDs and healthy lifestyle-practices were poor among school students aged 17-19 years. Lack of knowledge about healthy and unhealthy behaviors highlights the importance of carrying out regular surveillance for NCD risk factors, and initiating programs for the prevention of NCDs amongst adolescents.

Pub.: 28 Jul '17, Pinned: 01 Sep '17