A pinboard by
Naomi Kakoschke

I am a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Monash University studying the neuroscience of obesity.


People with obesity often eat unhealthy food although they know that it is bad for them. Scientists think this is related to the development of food habits over time that are not always intentional. Brain training is a promising clinical tool for increasing healthy eating in obesity. This study is the first randomised trial to explore the efficacy of two cognitive training strategies delivered via novel smartphone apps to improve healthy food choices in obesity. The trial compared two promising training strategies (Approach-Avoidance Training [AAT], and Episodic Future Thinking [EFT]) with a wait-list control group in sixty community-recruited people with overweight and obesity. We found that AAT, but not EFT, significantly improved healthy food choices and resulted in meaningful weight loss. This finding provides proof of concept evidence of the significance of testing AAT as a novel intervention for obesity, and the potential utility of smartphone apps as a feasible, engaging and scalable way to deliver obesity interventions. This research has increased our understanding of whether (and how) cognitive training can promote healthy food choices and help people with overweight and obesity.


Effect of Lifestyle Modification Using a Smartphone Application on Obesity With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Short-term, Randomized Controlled Study.

Abstract: To investigate the short-term effects of a lifestyle modification intervention based on a mobile application (app) linked to a hospital electronic medical record (EMR) system on weight reduction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).We prospectively enrolled adults (aged >20 years) with witnessed snoring or sleep apnea from a sleep clinic. The patients were randomized into the app user (n=24) and control (n=23) groups. The mobile app was designed to collect daily lifestyle data by wearing a wrist activity tracker and reporting dietary intake. A summary of the lifestyle data was displayed on the hospital EMR and was reviewed. In the control group, the lifestyle modification was performed as per usual practice. All participants underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (WatchPAT) and body mass index (BMI) measurements at baseline and after 4 weeks of follow-up.Age and BMI did not differ significantly between the two groups. While we observed a significant decrease in the BMI of both groups, the decrease was greater in the app user group (P <0.001). Apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory distress index, and oxygenation distress index did not change significantly in both groups. However, the proportion of sleep spent snoring at >45 dB was significantly improved in the app user group alone (P =0.014). In either group, among the participants with successful weight reduction, the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced after 4 weeks (P =0.015). Multiple regression analyses showed that a reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly associated with BMI.Although a short-term lifestyle modification approach using a mobile app was more effective in achieving weight reduction, improvement in OSA was not so significant. Long-term efficacy of this mobile app should be evaluated in the future studies.

Pub.: 30 Jan '18, Pinned: 31 Jan '18

Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight.

Abstract: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions.To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function (e.g. executive functions) and/or future success in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight, compared with standard care, waiting-list control, no treatment, or an attention placebo control group.In February 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and 15 other databases. We also searched two trials registries, reference lists, and handsearched one journal from inception. We also contacted researchers in the field to obtain unpublished data.We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for weight management in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. We excluded studies in children and adolescents with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function. We also excluded self- and parent-reported outcomes.Four review authors independently selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors extracted data, assessed quality and risks of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We contacted study authors to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Where the same outcome was assessed across different intervention types, we reported standardised effect sizes for findings from single-study and multiple-study analyses to allow comparison of intervention effects across intervention types. To ease interpretation of the effect size, we also reported the mean difference of effect sizes for single-study outcomes.We included 18 studies (59 records) of 2384 children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. Eight studies delivered physical activity interventions, seven studies combined physical activity programmes with healthy lifestyle education, and three studies delivered dietary interventions. We included five RCTs and 13 cluster-RCTs. The studies took place in 10 different countries. Two were carried out in children attending preschool, 11 were conducted in primary/elementary school-aged children, four studies were aimed at adolescents attending secondary/high school and one study included primary/elementary and secondary/high school-aged children. The number of studies included for each outcome was low, with up to only three studies per outcome. The quality of evidence ranged from high to very low and 17 studies had a high risk of bias for at least one item. None of the studies reported data on additional educational support needs and adverse events.Compared to standard practice, analyses of physical activity-only interventions suggested high-quality evidence for improved mean cognitive executive function scores. The mean difference (MD) was 5.00 scale points higher in an after-school exercise group compared to standard practice (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 9.32; scale mean 100, standard deviation 15; 116 children, 1 study). There was no statistically significant beneficial effect in favour of the intervention for mathematics, reading, or inhibition control. The standardised mean difference (SMD) for mathematics was 0.49 (95% CI -0.04 to 1.01; 2 studies, 255 children, moderate-quality evidence) and for reading was 0.10 (95% CI -0.30 to 0.49; 2 studies, 308 children, moderate-quality evidence). The MD for inhibition control was -1.55 scale points (95% CI -5.85 to 2.75; scale range 0 to 100; SMD -0.15, 95% CI -0.58 to 0.28; 1 study, 84 children, very low-quality evidence). No data were available for average achievement across subjects taught at school.There was no evidence of a beneficial effect of physical activity interventions combined with healthy lifestyle education on average achievement across subjects taught at school, mathematics achievement, reading achievement or inhibition control. The MD for average achievement across subjects taught at school was 6.37 points lower in the intervention group compared to standard practice (95% CI -36.83 to 24.09; scale mean 500, scale SD 70; SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.93 to 0.58; 1 study, 31 children, low-quality evidence). The effect estimate for mathematics achievement was SMD 0.02 (95% CI -0.19 to 0.22; 3 studies, 384 children, very low-quality evidence), for reading achievement SMD 0.00 (95% CI -0.24 to 0.24; 2 studies, 284 children, low-quality evidence), and for inhibition control SMD -0.67 (95% CI -1.50 to 0.16; 2 studies, 110 children, very low-quality evidence). No data were available for the effect of combined physical activity and healthy lifestyle education on cognitive executive functions.There was a moderate difference in the average achievement across subjects taught at school favouring interventions targeting the improvement of the school food environment compared to standard practice in adolescents with obesity (SMD 0.46, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.66; 2 studies, 382 adolescents, low-quality evidence), but not with overweight. Replacing packed school lunch with a nutrient-rich diet in addition to nutrition education did not improve mathematics (MD -2.18, 95% CI -5.83 to 1.47; scale range 0 to 69; SMD -0.26, 95% CI -0.72 to 0.20; 1 study, 76 children, low-quality evidence) and reading achievement (MD 1.17, 95% CI -4.40 to 6.73; scale range 0 to 108; SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.61; 1 study, 67 children, low-quality evidence).Despite the large number of childhood and adolescent obesity treatment trials, we were only able to partially assess the impact of obesity treatment interventions on school achievement and cognitive abilities. School and community-based physical activity interventions as part of an obesity prevention or treatment programme can benefit executive functions of children with obesity or overweight specifically. Similarly, school-based dietary interventions may benefit general school achievement in children with obesity. These findings might assist health and education practitioners to make decisions related to promoting physical activity and healthy eating in schools. Future obesity treatment and prevention studies in clinical, school and community settings should consider assessing academic and cognitive as well as physical outcomes.

Pub.: 30 Jan '18, Pinned: 31 Jan '18

White matter microstructural variability mediates the relation between obesity and cognition in healthy adults.

Abstract: Obesity has been linked with structural and functional brain changes. However, the impact of obesity on brain and cognition in aging remains debatable, especially for white matter. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of obesity on white matter microstructure and potential implications for cognition in a well-characterized large cohort of healthy adults. In total, 1255 participants (50% females, 19-80 years, BMI 16.8-50.2 kg/m2) with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3T were analysed. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) probed whether body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were related to fractional anisotropy (FA). We conducted partial correlations and mediation analyses to explore whether obesity or regional FA were related to cognitive performance. Analyses were adjusted for demographic, genetic, and obesity-associated confounders. Results showed that higher BMI and higher WHR were associated with lower FA in multiple white matter tracts (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected). Mediation analyses provided evidence for indirect negative effects of higher BMI and higher WHR on executive functions and processing speed through lower FA in fiber tracts connecting (pre)frontal, visual, and associative areas (indirect paths, |ß| ≥ 0.01; 99% |CI| > 0). This large cross-sectional study showed that obesity is correlated with lower FA in multiple white matter tracts in otherwise healthy adults, independent of confounders. Moreover, although effect sizes were small, mediation results indicated that visceral obesity was linked to poorer executive functions and lower processing speed through lower FA in callosal and associative fiber tracts. Longitudinal studies are needed to support this hypothesis.

Pub.: 30 Jan '18, Pinned: 31 Jan '18

Rapid increase of overweight and obesity among primary school-aged children in the Caribbean; high initial BMI is the most significant predictor

Abstract: To examine predictors of increasing overweight among children in two developing countries.Primary school children (6–10 y at baseline, n = 336) and their caregivers.Longitudinal data were collected in 2012, with follow-up 18 months later. Data on children’s height, weight and dietary intake were collected within 8 primary public schools in Trinidad and 7 schools in St. Kitts. Caregivers’ demographic and anthropometric data were also collected.At baseline, children’s age and sex and caregivers’ BMI, age, and marital status and reported dietary intake were similar across all weight groups. The incidence of overweight and obesity among children was 8.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Dietary intake at baseline was not related to becoming overweight or obese. Similarly there were no differences in reported intake among children who became overweight or obese except that they consumed fewer fruits (0.54±0.92 vs. 0.98±1.66, p = 0.017). Misreporting of energy intake was higher among overweight/obese children as compared to those who were not overweight/obese (27% vs. 17%, p = 0.047). The baseline predictors of increasing BMI (adjusted) of the children were older age, higher baseline BMI z-score and higher height-for-age (HFA) z-score; caregiver BMI, children’s energy intake (with adjustment for misreporting) did not predict changes in children’s BMI.The increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children is a serious problem in the Caribbean. Heavier children are at elevated risk of continued rapid increase in their weight status, pointing to the need for early intervention.

Pub.: 30 Jan '18, Pinned: 31 Jan '18