A pinboard by
Olugbenga Egbetokun

Research Fellow, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria


Market integration of vegetable farmers

Markets play a basic role in general economic welfare and among vegetable farming households. Market participation offers benefits in terms of income and opportunities for rural employment to farmers. However, due to inconsistent production, farmers who are resource-poor cannot produce a stable amount of output yearly as a result they cannot acquire contracts with traders in the market. Therefore, this study examined level of market participation by vegetable farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was used to select vegetable farmers. Purposive sampling was the first stage while the second stage was random selection of seventy farmers. The last stage was the sample selection model of vegetable marketed. Data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics, Market Participation Index (MPI) and Probit regression model. Farmers were classified based on the threshold of MPI value between 0.8 – 1.0 as high level market participant and 0.1–0.79 as low. The result showed that most of the farmers were female (55.7%), mean age 48.1±8.53 years and married (88.6%) with household size between 5 and 8 persons (77.1%). Most 65.7% have less than 0.5ha with less than 5 years in vegetable farming. Considering the market attributes, 71.4% were members of farmers’ association, 52.9% had no access to credit, 60% owned communication assets, 60% owned transport equipment, 74.3% were not involved in group marketing, 35.7% travelled as far as more than 5km to sell and only 32.9% had high level market participation. The regression result revealed that age (p<0.10); marital status (p<0.10), farm size (p<0.05), being involved in group marketing (p<0.01) and access to credit (p<0.05), significantly determine probability of high level market participation. Therefore, the hypotheses were rejected based on the significance level criterion. The study concludes that to improve the level of market participation of vegetable farmers in the study area, farmland, access to credit and group marketing are the foci points for the relevant policy makers, government and stakeholders in the vegetable sector of agriculture. Therefore, it is recommended that group marketing should be encouraged by all the tiers of government, policy on access to credit by real farmers to be formulated and implemented by the relevant government agency and land reform act should be reviewed to allow access to land by famers for increased output and high market participation


Food security status and produce intake and behaviors of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participants.

Abstract: This study identified differences between women from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)- and WIC/Farmers' Market Nutrition Program-participating households regarding household food security status, fruit and vegetable intake and behaviors, perceived diet quality, and education level; and assessed the relationship between household food security status and perceived diet quality and perceived health. DESIGN, SUBJECTS/SETTING: Cross-sectional survey of women from Athens County, Ohio (WIC, n=829; Farmers' Market Nutrition Program, n=246) living in WIC households.Of 228 participants completing the food security portion of the survey, 61 (26.8%) were living in food secure households, while 47 (20.6%), 75 (32.9%), and 45 (19.7%) were living in households at risk for (marginal) food insecurity, with low food security, and with very low food security, respectively. For the entire sample, food insecurity was associated with poorer diet quality (r=-0.248, P<0.001). Food security status (chi(2)=2.117, P=0.548) did not differ between groups. Farmers' Market Nutrition Program reported higher education levels (P=0.027). Unlike fruit intake (t test, P=0.769), vegetable intake servings were greater among Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (2.2+/-1.2), compared to WIC (1.9+/-1.0) (t test, P=0.040). Both perceived benefit (chi(2)=4.574, P=0.032) and perceived diet quality (chi(2)=7.219, P=0.027) were greater for Farmers' Market Nutrition Program.Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participants exhibit more indicators of a healthful diet, but appear not to be more food secure. Nutrition education regarding the benefits of fresh produce intake can help to improve diet quality and increase Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participation.

Pub.: 30 Oct '07, Pinned: 16 Sep '17

Barriers to rural households' participation in low-skilled off-farm labor markets: theory and empirical results from northern Ethiopia.

Abstract: Promotion of low-skilled off-farm rural labor market participation can be an important strategy to improve livelihoods and food security of the poor in developing countries. This paper investigates rural farm households' participation in low-skilled off-farm labor markets with disaggregate data from a survey of 400 households in Tigray, the northern highlands of Ethiopia. Adopting Heckman's two stage approach, we examined households' decisions to participate or not in markets by probit model in the first stage and level of participation by ordinary least squares procedures in the second stage. The results show that households' decision to enter into a labor market significantly depends on the characteristics of the households such as sex, age of the household heads and labor endowments in the households. Similarly, the level of participation in labor markets measured by the amount of off-farm wage income depends on labor endowments in the households and the place where the households are located. Since cash constrained rural households do not find themselves advantageous to participate in off-farm labor markets, the reduction of cash constraint is the major policy implication of the paper. This holds true in general for all cash constrained rural households in developing countries. Similarly, the empirical results in the paper suggest removal of locational barriers to access labor markets. This helps them to earn off-farm income. It is necessary to eliminate (or at least reduce) obstacles for rural households to enter into a market of off-farm wage earning activities. This holds true in general for all rural households in developing countries. This paper is therefore expected to contribute to frame appropriate policy that promotes participation in low-skilled off-farm rural labor markets in developing countries where many rural households are not only poor but also low-skilled.

Pub.: 05 Apr '13, Pinned: 16 Sep '17