PhD student, University of Mississippi
combine melt extrusion and 3D printing to produce different designed tablets and study drug release
The objective of this study was to develop a new approach for zero-order release of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), using hot-melt extrusion (HME) and 3D printing technology to generate tablets with specific 3D structures. By correlating the geometry of the 3D printed tablets with their dissolution and drug release rates, the mathematical models that have been developed to describe drug release mechanisms were also studied. Acetaminophen, a medication used to treat the pain and fever, was used as a model drug, and water soluble cellulose BenecelTM HPMC E5 and Soluplus® were used to formulate nine fuse depositional 3D-printed tablets with different inner core fill densities and outside shell thicknesses. Three-point bending and stiffness tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties of filaments and tablets. The surface and cross-sectional morphology of 3D-printed tablets was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the crystal states and thermal properties of the materials, respectively, and drug release rates were evaluated using a United States Pharmacopeia dissolution apparatus II. In this work, we report the successful fabrication of solid-dispersion filaments with an API dispersed in a polymer matrix via HME technology, and the production of zero order controlled release tablets with different 3D structures using a 3D printer. This study demonstrates that combining HME and 3D printing technologies can offer potential new methods for the economical and efficient manufacturing of zero order release dosage forms.
Abstract: Over the past few decades, nanocrystal formulations have evolved as promising drug delivery systems owing to their ability to enhance the bioavailability and maintain the stability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, conventional methods of preparing nanocrystal formulations, such as spray drying and freeze drying, have some drawbacks including high cost, time and energy inefficiency, traces of residual solvent, and difficulties in continuous operation. Therefore, new techniques for the production of nanocrystal formulations are necessary. The main objective of this study was to introduce a new technique for the production of nanocrystal solid dispersions (NCSDs) by combining high-pressure homogenization (HPH) and hot-melt extrusion (HME). Efavirenz (EFZ), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug, which is used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type I, was selected as the model drug for this study. A nanosuspension (NS) was first prepared by HPH using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Kollidon® 30 as a stabilizer system. The NS was then mixed with Soluplus® in the extruder barrel, and the water was removed by evaporation. The decreased particle size and crystalline state of EFZ were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, zeta particle size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. The increased dissolution rate was also determined. EFZ NCSD was found to be highly stable after storage for 6 months. In summary, the conjugation of HPH with HME technology was demonstrated to be a promising novel method for the production of NCSDs.
Pub.: 19 Aug '15, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: The aim of the current study is to develop amorphous solid dispersion (SD) via hot melt extrusion technology to improve the solubility of a water-insoluble compound, felodipine (FEL). The solubility was dramatically increased by preparation of amorphous SDs via hot-melt extrusion with an amphiphilic polymer, Soluplus® (SOL). FEL was found to be miscible with SOL by calculating the solubility parameters. The solubility of FEL within SOL was determined to be in the range of 6.2-9.9% (w/w). Various techniques were applied to characterize the solid-state properties of the amorphous SDs. These included Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to detect the formation of hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the morphology of the SDs. Among all the hot-melt extrudates, FEL was found to be molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix for the extrudates containing 10% drug, while few small crystals were detected in the 30 and 50% extrudates. In conclusion, solubility of FEL was enhanced while a homogeneous SD was achieved for 10% drug loading.
Pub.: 05 Nov '15, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: Floating dosage forms are an important formulation strategy for drugs with a narrow absorption window and low intestinal solubility, and for localized gastric treatment. Novel floating pellets were prepared using the hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology. Uniformly foamed strands were created by liquid injection pumping and screw configuration modification. The ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit® RSPO) foaming structure was formed by a liquid-vapor phase transition inside the strand upon die exiting resulting from the sudden decrease in external pressure, vaporizing the liquid ethanol and vacating the extruded material. This generated uniform vacuous regions in the extrudate. The pellets' internal structure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formulation constituents' and processing parameters' effects on the drug release profiles, floating force, and the pellets' micromeritic properties were evaluated by design of experiments: all formulations showed zero lag time and excellent floating strength, indicating immediate-floating pellet formation. The pellets' drug release profiles were controlled by multiple independent variables at different time points (⩽ 24 h). Drug loading significantly affected drug release within the first hour, the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) content thereafter. Understanding the variables' effects on the formulations allows for the tailoring of this delivery system to obtain various drug release profiles.
Pub.: 09 Dec '15, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer carrier, hot melt extrusion and downstream processing parameters on the water uptake properties of amorphous solid dispersions.Three polymers and a model drug were used to prepare amorphous solid dispersions utilizing the hot melt extrusion technology. The sorption–desorption isotherms of solid dispersions and their physical mixtures were measured by the dynamic vapour sorption system, and the effects of polymer hydrophobicity, hygroscopicity, molecular weight and the hot melt extrusion process were investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was performed to understand the phase separation driven by the moisture.Solid dispersions with polymeric carriers with lower hydrophilicity, hygroscopicity and higher molecular weight could sorb less moisture under the high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The water uptake ability of polymer–drug solid dispersion systems were decreased compared with the physical mixture after hot melt extrusion, which might be due to the decreased surface area and porosity. The FTIR imaging indicated that the homogeneity of the drug molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix was changed after exposure to high RH.Understanding the effect of formulation and processing on the moisture sorption properties of solid dispersions is essential for the development of drug products with desired physical and chemical stability.
Pub.: 21 Nov '15, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: In the present study, we aimed to prepare a gastroretentive drug delivery system that would be both highly resistant to gastric emptying via multiple mechanisms and would also potentially induce in situ supersaturation. The bioadhesive floating pellets, loaded with an amorphous solid dispersion, were prepared in a single step of hot-melt extrusion technology. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel™ MF) and hypromellose (Benecel™ K15M) were used as matrix-forming polymers, and felodipine was used as the model drug. The foam pellets were fabricated based on the expansion of CO2, which was generated from sodium bicarbonate during the melt-extrusion process. A 2(n) full factorial experimental design was utilized to investigate the effects of formulation compositions to the pellet properties. The melt-extrusion process transformed the crystalline felodipine into an amorphous state that was dispersed and "frozen" in the polymer matrix. All formulations showed high porosity and were able to float immediately, without lag time, on top of gastric fluid, and maintained their buoyancy over 12h. The pellet-specific floating force, which could be as high as 4800μN/g, increased significantly during the first hour, and was relatively stable until 9h. The sodium bicarbonate percentage was found to be most significantly effect to the floating force. The ex vivo bioadhesion force of the pellets to porcine stomach mucosa was approximately 5mN/pellet, which was more than five times higher than the gravitation force of the pellet saturated with water. Drug release was well controlled up to 12h in the sink condition of 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate in 0.1N HCl. The dissolution at 1, 3, 5, and 8h were 5-12%, 25-45%, 55-80%, and ≥75% respectively for all 11 formulations. In biorelevant dissolution medium, a supersaturated solution was formed, and the concentration was maintained at around 2μg/mL, approximately 10-folds higher than that of the pure felodipine. All input factors significantly affected dissolution in the first 3h, but afterwards, only drug load and hypromellose (HPMC) content had significant effects. The prepared drug delivery system has great potential in overcoming low and fluctuating bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.Felodipine (PubChem CID: 3333); hypromellose (PubChem CID: 57503849), hydroxypropyl cellulose (PubChem CID: 71306830), sodium bicarbonate (PubChem CID: 516892); sodium carbonate (PubChem CID: 10340).
Pub.: 05 Mar '17, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: The main objective of this novel study was to develop chlorpheniramine maleate orally disintegrating films (ODF) using hot-melt extrusion technology and evaluate the characteristics of the formulation using in vitro and in vivo methods. Modified starch with glycerol was used as a polymer matrix for melt extrusion. Sweetening and saliva-simulating agents were incorporated to improve palatability and lower the disintegration time of film formulations. A standard screw configuration was applied, and the last zone of the barrel was opened to discharge water vapors, which helped to manufacture non-sticky, clear, and uniform films. The film formulations demonstrated rapid disintegration times (6-11 s) and more than 95% dissolution in 5 min. In addition, the films had characteristic mechanical properties that were helpful in handling and storage. An animal model was employed to determine the taste masking of melt-extruded films. The lead film formulation was subjected to a human panel for evaluation of extent of taste masking and disintegration.
Pub.: 10 Jun '17, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Abstract: The main objective of this work was to explore the potential of coupling fused deposition modeling in three-dimensional (3D) printing with hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology to facilitate additive manufacturing, in order to fabricate tablets with enhanced extended release properties. Acetaminophen was used as the model drug and different grades and ratios of polymers were used to formulate tablets. Three-point bending and hardness tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties of the filaments and tablets. 3D-printed tablets, directly compressed mill-extruded tablets, and tablets prepared from a physical mixture were evaluated for drug release rates using a USP-II dissolution apparatus. The surface and cross-sectional morphology of the 3D-printed tablets were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the crystal states and thermal properties of materials, respectively. The 3D-printed tablets had smooth surfaces and tight structures; therefore, they showed better extended drug release rates than the directly compressed tablets did. Further, this study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of coupling HME with 3D printing technology, which allows for the formulation of drug delivery systems using different grades and ratios of pharmaceutical polymers. In addition, formulations can be made based on the personal needs of patients.
Pub.: 27 Dec '16, Pinned: 28 Jun '17