PhD candidate, Monash
Perovskite is one of the most applicable materials for photovoltaics
Organo-lead halide perovskites (OHPs) have recently emerged as a new class of exceptional optoelectronic materials, which may find use in many applications, including solar cells, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. More complex applications, such as lasers and electro-optic modulators, require the use of monocrystalline perovskite materials to reach their ultimate performance levels. Conventional methods for forming single crystals of OHPs like methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) afford limited control over the product morphology, rendering the assembly of defined microcavity nanostructures difficult. We overcame this by synthesizing for the first time (MA)[PbBr3]·DMF (1), and demonstrating its facile transformation into monocrystalline MAPbBr3 microplatelets. The MAPbBr3 microplatelets were tailored into waveguide based photonic devices, of which an ultra-low propagation loss of 0.04 dBmm1 for a propagation distance of 100 mm was demonstrated. An efficient active electro-optical modulator (AEOM) consisting of a MAPbBr3 non-linear arc waveguide was demonstrated, exhibiting a 98.4% PL intensity modulation with an external voltage of 45 V. This novel synthetic approach, as well as the demonstration of effective waveguiding, will pave the way for developing a wide range of photonic devices based on organo-lead halide perovskites.
Abstract: Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirm that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature- and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials.
Pub.: 21 Apr '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '17
Abstract: Organic–inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced ‘brightening’ of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. Our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.
Pub.: 24 May '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '17
Abstract: Organometal halide perovskites exhibit large bulk crystal domain sizes, rare traps, excellent mobilities and carriers that are free at room temperature-properties that support their excellent performance in charge-separating devices. In devices that rely on the forward injection of electrons and holes, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), excellent mobilities contribute to the efficient capture of non-equilibrium charge carriers by rare non-radiative centres. Moreover, the lack of bound excitons weakens the competition of desired radiative (over undesired non-radiative) recombination. Here we report a perovskite mixed material comprising a series of differently quantum-size-tuned grains that funnels photoexcitations to the lowest-bandgap light-emitter in the mixture. The materials function as charge carrier concentrators, ensuring that radiative recombination successfully outcompetes trapping and hence non-radiative recombination. We use the new material to build devices that exhibit an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.8% and a radiance of 80 W sr(-1) m(-2). These represent the brightest and most efficient solution-processed near-infrared LEDs to date.
Pub.: 28 Jun '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '17
Abstract: Impressive performance of hybrid perovskite solar cells reported in recent years still awaits a comprehensive understanding of its microscopic origins. In this work, the intrinsic Hall mobility and photocarrier recombination coefficient are directly measured in these materials in steady-state transport studies. The results show that electron-hole recombination and carrier trapping rates in hybrid perovskites are very low. The bimolecular recombination coefficient (10−11 to 10−10 cm3 s−1) is found to be on par with that in the best direct-band inorganic semiconductors, even though the intrinsic Hall mobility in hybrid perovskites is considerably lower (up to 60 cm2 V−1 s−1). Measured here, steady-state carrier lifetimes (of up to 3 ms) and diffusion lengths (as long as 650 μm) are significantly longer than those in high-purity crystalline inorganic semiconductors. We suggest that these experimental findings are consistent with the polaronic nature of charge carriers, resulting from an interaction of charges with methylammonium dipoles.
Pub.: 01 Aug '16, Pinned: 13 Sep '17