PhD Student, University of Waterloo
Differentiate these two technique in measuring and accuracy of measuring retinal vasculature caliber
Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) is a non-invasive, contact free, high resolution and high-speed imaging modality, with resolution in the range of ~um, that enables visualization of cellular structure. It has the most application in field of ophthalmology, my research topic is mainly related to utilizing OCT, for imaging human and animal model diseases of the eye, and investigate novel methods for early diagnosis of disease.
Abstract: Keratocytes are fibroblast-like cells that maintain the optical clarity and the overall health of the cornea. The ability to measure precisely their density and spatial distribution in the cornea is important for the understanding of corneal healing processes and the diagnostics of some corneal disorders. A novel computerized approach to detection and counting of keratocyte cells from ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) images of the human corneal stroma is presented. The corneal OCT data is first processed using a state-of-the-art despeckling algorithm to reduce the effect of speckle on detection accuracy. A thresholding strategy is then employed to allow for improved delineation of keratocyte cells by suppressing similarly shaped features in the data, followed by a second-order moment analysis to identify potential cell nuclei candidates. Finally, a local extrema strategy is used to refine the candidates to determine the locations and the number of keratocyte cells. Cell density distribution analysis was carried in 3D UHR-OCT images of the human corneal stroma, acquired in-vivo. The cell density results obtained using the proposed novel approach correlate well with previous work on computerized keratocyte cell counting from confocal microscopy images of human cornea.
Pub.: 18 Nov '11, Pinned: 27 Aug '17
Abstract: To provide in vivo quantitative assessment of sodium iodate-induced retinal damage in a rat model of outer retinal degeneration using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT).Outer retinal degeneration was induced in four female Long Evans rats via tail vein injection of sodium iodate (40 mg/kg). Changes in the thickness and optical reflectivity of individual retinal layers were extracted using a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm and were assessed in vivo at 6 hours, days 1, 3, and 7, and up to 3 months post injection with UHR-OCT. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology was used to confirm the morphologic changes observed in the UHR-OCT images.UHR-OCT tomograms showed progressive structural damage in the rat retina over time, such as swelling, thinning, complete disintegration of individual retinal layers, and clustering of highly reflective cellular debris. Photoreceptor swelling was observed 6 hours after injection of sodium iodate, followed by progressive structural decomposition of the outer retina. At 3 months post injection, the outer retina was completely disintegrated, and the inner nuclear layer (INL) was in direct contact with the choroid. Changes in the reflectivity of individual retinal layers were observed over time and correlated well with the morphologic changes.UHR-OCT permits in vivo, noninvasive, longitudinal, quantitative assessment of the progressive changes in retinal morphology and optical reflectivity in a sodium iodate rodent model of outer retinal degeneration.
Pub.: 08 Mar '12, Pinned: 27 Aug '17
Abstract: An optical coherence tomography (OCT) microvascular imaging platform, consisting of Doppler (DOCT) and speckle variance (svOCT) modalities, and microvascular image quantification tools are developed. The quantification methods extract blood flow-related parameters from DOCT images and vessel morphological parameters from svOCT images. This platform is used to assess the microvascular (DOCT and svOCT) images obtained during a clinical study on late oral radiation toxicity. This specific pathology was considered a suitable scenario for verifying the performance of the developed quantification platform because late oral radiation toxicity is known to involve microvascular damage. The derived parameters are compared between several DOCT and svOCT images from one patient and one healthy volunteer as proof-of-principle, and the significance of the observed differences is discussed. Given the low number of OCT clinical studies that measure and quantify microvascular images and considering the importance of such quantification in a number of pathologies, this newly developed platform can serve as a useful tool in studying diseases and treatments with microvascular involvement.
Pub.: 12 Jul '13, Pinned: 27 Aug '17
Abstract: To visualize in vivo and quantify the thickness of the posterior corneal layers: the acellular pre-Descemet's layer (PDL), Descemet's membrane (DM), and endothelium (END) in healthy subjects, using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT).A research-grade, 800-nm UHR-OCT system with 0.95-μm axial resolution in corneal tissue was used to image in vivo the posterior cornea in healthy subjects. The system offers approximately 98 dB sensitivity for 680 μW optical power incident on the cornea and 34,000 A-scans/s image acquisition rate. This study comprised 20 healthy subjects, aged 20 to 60 years. The thickness of the PDL, DM, and END layers was measured both with a custom, automatic segmentation algorithm and manually.The boundaries and structure of the posterior corneal layers were clearly visible in the UHR-OCT images. The average thickness was measured to be 6.6 ± 1.4 μm (PDL), 10.4 ± 2.9 μm (DM), and 4.8 ± 0.4 μm (END), which agrees well with published data from ex vivo studies. Both the END and DM thickness showed minor spatial variations, whereas the PDL showed up to 2× thickness change for different locations on the same cross-sectional corneal image or over the entire imaged region of the cornea.Our data indicate that all three layers of the posterior cornea can be clearly visualized in vivo and their thicknesses measured precisely with UHR-OCT. Although the PDL thickness showed large spatial variations, the thickness of the DM and END layers was consistent over the entire imaged region of the cornea.
Pub.: 21 May '16, Pinned: 27 Aug '17
Abstract: To compare retinal vessel calibers extracted from phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with vessel calibers as obtained from the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA).Data from previously published studies in 13 healthy subjects breathing room air (n = 214 vessels) and 7 subjects breathing 100% oxygen (n = 101 vessels) were used. Vessel calibers from OCT phase images were measured vertically along the optical axis by three independent graders. The data from RVA fundus images were corrected for magnification to obtain absolute values.The average vessel diameter as obtained from OCT images during normoxia was lower than from RVA images (83.8 ± 28.2 μm versus 86.6 ± 28.0 μm, P < 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed during 100% oxygen breathing (OCT: 81.0 ± 22.4 μm, RVA: 85.5 ± 26.0 μm; P = 0.001). Although the agreement between the two methods was generally high, the difference in individual vessels could be as high as 40%. These differences were neither dependent on absolute vessel size nor preferably found in specific subjects. Interobserver differences between OCT evaluators were much lower than differences between the techniques.Extracting vessel calibers from OCT phase images may be an attractive approach to overcome some of the problems associated with fundus imaging. The source of differences in vessel caliber between the two methods remains to be investigated. In addition, it remains unclear whether OCT-based vessel caliber measurement is superior to fundus camera-based imaging in risk stratification for systemic or ocular disease. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00914407, NCT02531399.).
Pub.: 14 Jul '16, Pinned: 27 Aug '17
Abstract: The chicken retina is an established animal model for myopia and light-associated growth studies. It has a unique morphology: it is afoveate and avascular; oxygen and nutrition to the inner retina is delivered by a vascular tissue (pecten) that protrudes into the vitreous. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first in vivo, volumetric high-resolution images of the chicken retina. Images were acquired with an ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT) system with 3.5 µm axial resolution in the retina, at the rate of 47,000 A-scans/s. Spatial variations in the thickness of the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers were mapped by segmenting and measuring the layer thickness with a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm. Volumetric visualization of the morphology and morphometric analysis of the chicken retina could aid significantly studies with chicken retinal models of ophthalmic diseases.
Pub.: 12 May '11, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: To establish a relationship between the diameter and depth position of vessels in the superior and inferior corneo-scleral limbus using ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT).Volumetric OCT images of the superior and inferior limbus were acquired from 14 healthy subjects with a research-grade UHR-OCT system. Differences in vessel diameter and depth between superior and inferior limbus were analyzed using repeated measured ANOVA in SPSS and R.The mean (± SD) superior and inferior diameters were 29±18μm and 24±18μm respectively, and the mean (± SD) superior and inferior depths were 177±109μm and 207±132μm respectively. The superior limbal vessels were larger than the inferior ones (RM-ANOVA, p=0.004), and the inferior limbal vessels were deeper than the superior vessels (RM-ANOVA, p=0.041). There was a positive linear association between limbal vessel depth and size within the superior and inferior limbus with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.803 and 0.754, respectively.This study demonstrated that the UHR-OCT was capable of imaging morphometric characteristics such as the size and depth of vessels in the limbus. The results of this study suggest a difference in the size and depth of vessels across different positions of the limbus, which may be indicative of adaptations to chronic hypoxia caused by the covering of the superior limbus by the upper eyelid. UHR-OCT may be a useful tool to evaluate the effect of contact lenses on the microvascular properties within the limbus.
Pub.: 21 Jun '17, Pinned: 25 Aug '17
Abstract: Kostadinka Bizheva, Bingyao Tan, Benjamin MacLelan, Olivera Kralj, Mojtaba Hajialamdari, Denise Hileeto, Luigina SorbaraCorneal degenerative conditions such as keratoconus (KC) cause progressive damage to the anterior corneal tissue and eventually severely compromise visual acuity. The ability to visualize corneal tissue damage in-vivo at cellular or sub-cellular level at different stages of development of KC and ... [Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 800-812 (2017)]
Pub.: 01 Feb '17, Pinned: 25 Aug '17