PhD Student at École de technologie supérieure studying Carbon Nanotube MEMS.
Currently the hottest topic of debate, let's look at the actual science behind it
Is it just the weather or is it Global Warming? As with any debatable topics, there are arguments in favor and against climate change. However, when we bring in statistics and scientific data into the picture, there are strong indications that climate change is very real and is poised to change the landscape of the earth as we know it sooner than expected. Studies have shown that atmospheric CO2 levels are higher today than at any other point in human history caused by human activities like the burning of fossil fuels. CO2 being a greenhouse gas is infamous for being the chief contributor to global warming. The greenhouse effect increases the radiative energy available to Earth’s surface and to the lower atmosphere. Unless compensated by other processes, this leads to warmer temperatures on the earth's surface which set of a chain reaction involving the melting of ice caps leading to rising ocean levels which affects the coasts of the planet. How do we know that CO2 levels have increased? CO2 levels have been continuously monitored since the1950's by Infrared techniques. With advancements in technology, CO2 levels are now being studied from space using real-time monitoring systems which give a clear picture of the concentration of CO2 in the air for any city on Earth. Data suggests that CO2 levels have risen from 315 parts per million (ppm) in the 1950's to 409 ppm presently. How do such minute quantities affect Earth's radiations? Earth heats up by absorbing solar radiation and cools down by emitting infrared radiation into space. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb the infrared radiation and re-emit them.Some of the infrared radiation that would otherwise directly escape to space is emitted back toward the surface thereby heating up the earth's surface leading to warmer conditions. How does climate change affect us? Unfortunately, climate change and global warming have far-reaching consequences such as flooding, disease, wildfires and drought to name a few. This could directly impact the economic health of nations and thereby lead to higher taxes and spending. It is thus clear that climate change is real and more effort should be taken to educate people about it for a better future of our planet.
Abstract: The economic importance of goat production has been increased during the last decades all over the world, predominantly in countries that are routinely exposed to harsh environment. Goats have numerous advantages that enable them to maintain their production under extreme climate conditions. Principally, goats have higher capacity than other farm raised ruminants to effectively convert some feed sources into milk and meat. In addition, goats emit less methane than other domestic ruminants. Based on these advantages, we came to the conclusion that goat breeding will play an important role in mitigating and adapting to Climate change (CC) in harsh environments. The impacts of CC on goat production can be analyzed by considering direct or indirect effects of CC. The direct effects take into account goat’s physiology and their interaction with ambient conditions, as well as issues such as the optimal use of natural resource and waste management. Indirect effects consider limitations on goat production from political, social and economic considerations, which are mainly intended for decreasing the greenhouse gas emission effect. In this paper the advantages of goats for future adaptation to CC will be considered.
Pub.: 23 Apr '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: South Asia experienced a weakening of summer monsoon circulation in the past several decades, resulting in rainfall decline in wet regions. In comparison to other tropical ecosystems, quantitative assessments of the extent and triggers of vegetation change are lacking in assessing climate-change impacts over South Asia dominated by crops. Here we use satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify spatial-temporal changes in vegetation greenness, and find a widespread annual greening trend that stands in contrast to the weakening of summer monsoon circulation particularly over the last decade. We further show that moisture supply is the primary factor limiting vegetation activity during dry season or in dry region, and cloud cover or temperature would become increasingly important in wet region. Enhanced moisture conditions over dry region, coinciding with the decline in monsoon, are mainly responsible for the widespread greening trend. This result thereby cautions the use of a unified monsoon index to predict South Asia's vegetation dynamics. Current climate-carbon models in general correctly reproduce the dominant control of moisture in the temporal characteristics of vegetation productivity. But the model ensemble cannot exactly reproduce the spatial pattern of satellite-based vegetation change mainly because of biases in climate simulations. The moisture-induced greening over South Asia, which is likely to persist into the wetter future, has significant implications for regional carbon cycling and maintaining food security. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pub.: 18 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: To avoid more severe impacts from climate change, there is international agreement to strive to limit warming to below 1.5 °C. However, there is a lack of literature assessing climate change at 1.5 °C and the potential benefits in terms of reduced frequency of extreme events1, 2, 3. Here, we demonstrate that existing model simulations provide a basis for rapid and rigorous analysis of the effects of different levels of warming on large-scale climate extremes, using Australia as a case study. We show that limiting warming to 1.5 °C, relative to 2 °C, would perceptibly reduce the frequency of extreme heat events in Australia. The Australian continent experiences a variety of high-impact climate extremes that result in loss of life, and economic and environmental damage. Events similar to the record-hot summer of 2012–2013 and warm seas associated with bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef in 2016 would be substantially less likely, by about 25% in both cases, if warming is kept to lower levels. The benefits of limiting warming on hydrometeorological extremes are less clear. This study provides a framework for analysing climate extremes at 1.5 °C global warming.
Pub.: 15 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: Global climate underwent a major reorganization when the Antarctic ice sheet expanded ~14 million years ago (Ma) (1). This event affected global atmospheric circulation, including the strength and position of the westerlies and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and, therefore, precipitation patterns (2-5). We present new shallow-marine sediment records from the continental shelf of Australia (International Ocean Discovery Program Sites U1459 and U1464) providing the first empirical evidence linking high-latitude cooling around Antarctica to climate change in the (sub)tropics during the Miocene. We show that Western Australia was arid during most of the Middle Miocene. Southwest Australia became wetter during the Late Miocene, creating a climate gradient with the arid interior, whereas northwest Australia remained arid throughout. Precipitation and river runoff in southwest Australia gradually increased from 12 to 8 Ma, which we relate to a northward migration or intensification of the westerlies possibly due to increased sea ice in the Southern Ocean (5). Abrupt aridification indicates that the westerlies shifted back to a position south of Australia after 8 Ma. Our midlatitude Southern Hemisphere data are consistent with the inference that expansion of sea ice around Antarctica resulted in a northward movement of the westerlies. In turn, this may have pushed tropical atmospheric circulation and the ITCZ northward, shifting the main precipitation belt over large parts of Southeast Asia (4).
Pub.: 17 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013. Further analysis distinguished between the effects of climatic change and those of human activities on vegetation dynamics by means of a residual analysis trend method. The results show that vegetation pixels significantly decreased for shrubs and sparse vegetation compared with those for the other vegetation types and that the degradation of sparse vegetation was more serious in the Karakum and Kyzylkum Deserts, the Ustyurt Plateau and the wetland delta of the Large Aral Sea than in other regions. The Hurst exponent results indicated that forests are more sustainable than grasslands, shrubs and sparse vegetation. Precipitation is the main factor affecting vegetation growth in the Kazakhskiy Melkosopochnik. Moreover, temperature is a controlling factor that influences the seasonal variation of vegetation greenness in the mountains and the Aral Sea basin. Drought is the main factor affecting vegetation degradation as a result of both increased temperature and decreased precipitation in the Kyzylkum Desert and the northern Ustyurt Plateau. The residual analysis highlighted that sparse vegetation and the degradation of some shrubs in the southern part of the Karakum Desert, the southern Ustyurt Plateau and the wetland delta of the Large Aral Sea were mainly triggered by human activities: the excessive exploitation of water resources in the upstream areas of the Amu Darya basin and oil and natural gas extraction in the southern part of the Karakum Desert and the southern Ustyurt Plateau. The results also indicated that after the collapse of the Soviet Union, abandoned pastures gave rise to increased vegetation in eastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and abandoned croplands reverted to grasslands in northern Kazakhstan, leading to a decrease in cropland greenness. Shrubs and sparse vegetation were extremely sensitive to short-term climatic variations, and our results demonstrated that these vegetation types were the most seriously degraded by human activities. Therefore, regional governments should strive to restore vegetation to sustain this fragile arid ecological environment.
Pub.: 17 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: The Arctic is warming and melting at alarming rates. Within the lifetime of a Millennial, the volume of ice floating on the Arctic Ocean has declined by at least half. The pace of Arctic warming is two-to-three times that of the globe; this disparity reached a new record high during 2016. While the Arctic spans only a small fraction of the Earth, it plays a disproportionate and multifaceted role in the climate system. In this article, we offer new perspectives on ways in which the Arctic's rapid warming may influence weather patterns in heavily populated regions (the mid-latitudes) of the Northern Hemisphere. Research on this topic has evolved almost as rapidly as the snow and ice have diminished, and while much has been learned, many questions remain. The atmosphere is complex, highly variable, and undergoing a multitude of simultaneous changes, many of which have become apparent only recently. These realities present challenges to robust signal detection and to clear attribution of cause-and-effect. In addition to updating the state of this science, we propose an explanation for the varying and intermittent response of mid-latitude circulation to the rapidly warming Arctic.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Pub.: 16 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: Altered precipitation patterns associated with anthropogenic climate change are expected to have many effects on plants and insect pollinators, but it is unknown if effects on pollination are mediated by changes in water availability. We tested the hypothesis that impacts of climate on plant-pollinator interactions operate through changes in water availability, and specifically that such effects occur through alteration of floral attractants. We manipulated water availability in two naturally occurring Mertensia ciliata (Boraginaceae) populations using water addition, water reduction and control plots and measured effects on vegetative and floral traits, pollinator visitation and seed set. While most floral trait values, including corolla size and nectar, increased linearly with increasing water availability, in this bumblebee-pollinated species, pollinator visitation peaked at intermediate water levels. Visitation also peaked at an intermediate corolla length, while its relationship to corolla width varied across sites. Seed set, however, increased linearly with water. These results demonstrate the potential for changes in water availability to impact plant-pollinator interactions through pollinator responses to differences in floral attractants, and that the effects of water on pollinator visitation can be nonlinear. Plant responses to changes in resource availability may be an important mechanism by which climate change will affect species interactions.
Pub.: 19 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.
Pub.: 20 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: Water resources in Central Asia are scarce, so complicated issues arise from this. Kazakhstan is a Central Asian landlocked country, which has mostly closed drainage basins, characterized by endorheic lakes that do not drain to the oceans. These endorheic lakes are very sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic influences. Very few studies have been conducted on the hydrological cycle of the small endorheic lakes. This work reviews the endorheic lakes within Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), Northern Kazakhstan. BNNP is a small ecozone consisting of terminal lakes watersheds covered by mixed forests and grasslands. These endorheic lakes have been drying out during the last one hundred years or so with the water level decrease accelerated in the past few decades. According to historical observations (1935–2014), on the one hand precipitation amounts did not significantly change, while on the other hand, air temperature steadily increased. The lake level decrease is most probably caused by a water budget deficit, with evaporation exceeding the precipitation inputs in the long term. The direct anthropogenic impact (water abstraction) plays a minor role in the deterioration of water levels, with most significant impacts through localized land-use changes such as road and building construction in the catchments. The future of the park's sensitive ecosystems in a changing climate is uncertain; therefore, BNNP requires modern ecohydrological monitoring methods and analysis tools to improve our understanding of its hydrological cycle variability, and to enable us to develop adequate adaptation and mitigation measures.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Pub.: 18 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: In recent decades, phenology has become an important tool by which to measure both the impact of climate change on ecosystems and the feedback of ecosystems to the climate system. However, there has been little attempt to date to systematically quantify the increase in the number of scientific publications with a focus on phenology and climate change. In order to partially address this issue, we examined the number of articles (original papers, reviews and short communications) containing the terms 'phenology' and 'climate change' in the title, abstract or keywords, published in the International Journal of Biometeorology in the 60 years since its inception in 1957. We manually inspected all issues prior to 1987 for the search terms and subsequently used the search facility on the Web of Science online database. The overall number of articles published per decade remained relatively constant (255-378) but rose rapidly to 1053 in the most recent decade (2007-2016), accompanied by an increase (41-172) in the number of articles containing the search terms. A number of factors may have contributed to this rise, including the recognition of the value of phenology as an indicator of climate change and the initiation in 2010 of a series of conferences focusing on phenology which subsequently led to two special issues of the journal. The word 'phenology' was in use from the first issue, whereas 'climate change' only emerged in 1987 and peaked in 2014. New technologies such as satellite remote sensing and the internet led to an expansion of and greater access to a growing reservoir of phenological information. The application of phenological data included determining the impact of warming of phenophases, predicting wine quality and the pollen season, demonstrating the potential for mismatch to occur and both reconstructing and forecasting climate. Even though this analysis was limited to one journal, it is likely to be indicative of a similar trend across other scientific publications.
Pub.: 21 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
Abstract: Transects that traverse substantial climate gradients are important tools for climate change research and allow questions on the extent to which phenotypic variation associates with climate, the link between climate and species distributions, and variation in sensitivity to climate change among biomes to be addressed. However, the potential limitations of individual transect studies have recently been highlighted. Here, we argue that replicating and networking transects, along with the introduction of experimental treatments, addresses these concerns. Transect networks provide cost-effective and robust insights into ecological and evolutionary adaptation and improve forecasting of ecosystem change. We draw on the experience and research facilitated by the Australian Transect Network to demonstrate our case, with examples, to clarify how population- and community-level studies can be integrated with observations from multiple transects, manipulative experiments, genomics, and ecological modeling to gain novel insights into how species and systems respond to climate change. This integration can provide a spatiotemporal understanding of past and future climate-induced changes, which will inform effective management actions for promoting biodiversity resilience.
Pub.: 19 May '17, Pinned: 22 May '17
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