Part Time Lecturer, Masinde Muliro University Of Science and Technology
It involves production of bio-oil from wood pellets and upgrading to transport fuel
Pyrolysis oil is produced from wood pellets and is upgraded in this research by catalytic hydrotreatment in a 100 ml batch type reactor using formic acid as hydrogen source and alumina based catalysts. Four heterogeneous 5% metal catalysts (Ru, Ni, Rh, and Ni) were used at different hydrotreatment temperatures (250 ºC and 300 ºC). Two different set-ups were also used with formic acid(Formic acid is a hydrogen donor) and with only bio-oil. The products of the reforming using two temperature conditions were then analysed and compared. The results showed that higher temperature yielded a lot of char compared to lower temperature giving low bio-oil recovery and poor carbon yield in the bio-oil. Also higher temperature resulted into the production of more carbon dioxide gas and hydrocarbon gases. Ru catalyst appeared to be the best among all the catalysts in reducing the amount oxygen wt-% by 42.12% at 250 ºC. After analysis of the oil, Ru treated bio-oil registered the highest composition of the lightest compounds of about 88.5% compared to initial bio-oil which only had 30.6%. Elemental analyses results show that all the upgraded bio-oils displayed lower oxygen content than the raw bio-oil with increased hydrogen and carbon composition. The upgraded bio-oils using the catalysts had the composition of the oxygenates reduced with Ru having the highest reduction rate giving the composition of hydrocarbons to oxygenates ratio of 3.3 up from 2.3 of raw bio-oil
Abstract: The ex-catalytic co-pyrolysis of bamboo and polypropylene (PP) with HZSM-5 was investigated with microwave assistance. The influences of catalytic temperature, feedstock/catalyst ratio, and bamboo/PP ratio on the product yields and chemical components of bio-oil from the co-pyrolysis were studied. When the catalytic temperature, feedstock/catalyst ratio, and bamboo/PP ratio were 250 °C, 1:2, and 2:1, respectively, the bio-oil yield reached its maximum value at 61.62 wt%. The oxygenate proportion compounds decreased with increasing catalyst content. The PP addition improved the proportions of aromatics and naphthenic hydrocarbons. The bio-oil was upgraded significantly from the jet fuel perspective. A synergistic effect also existed between bamboo and PP.
Pub.: 19 Oct '17, Pinned: 23 Oct '17
Abstract: •Pyrolysis of straw biomasses were carried out using TGA and a bench scale reactor.•Bio-chars product of all samples contain 63.58% fixed carbon.•Catalyst (ZY-SS) tripled the production of furfural for flax straw pyrolysis.•GC–MS analysis showed bio-oil contain components with 1, 2 or 3 oxygen atom.•Zeolite catalyst increased bio-oil yield and rich-oxygenated compounds.
Pub.: 01 May '17, Pinned: 23 Oct '17
Abstract: The pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was catalyzed with a steel slag-derived zeolite (FAU-SL) in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C. The catalytic pyrolysis of OPMF produced a maximum yield of 47 wt% bio-oil at 550 °C, and the crude pyrolysis vapor (CPV) of this process yielded crude pyrolysis oil with broad distribution of bulky oxygenated organic compounds. The bio-oil composition produced at 550 °C contained mainly light and stable acid-rich carbonyls at a relative abundance of 48.02% peak area and phenolic compounds at 12.03% peak area. The FAU-SL high mesoporosity and strong surface acidity caused the conversion of the bulky CPV molecules into mostly light acid-rich carbonyls and aromatics through secondary reactions. The secondary reactions mechanisms facilitated by FAU-SL reduced the distribution of the organic compounds in the bio-oil to mostly acid-rich carbonyls and aromatic in contrast to other common zeolite.
Pub.: 19 Oct '17, Pinned: 23 Oct '17