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We are getting closer to a treatment for HIV patients that doesn’t require taking drugs daily.
In 10 seconds? Scientists have achieved promising results using compounds that track and suppress the HIV better than current antiretroviral drugs.
What was the discovery? Lab monkeys infected with a virus mimicking human HIV were given bNAbs and molecules to stimulate the immune system along with an initial dose of conventional antiretroviral drugs. The result was that the animals did not need any other treatment for six months, as the virus was suppressed.
So why is this significant? This opens up the possibility for HIV infections to be treated by taking drugs only a few times a year, or even prevented in the future. The goal is “remission”, a state where the patient has no symptoms. Modern antiretroviral drugs reduce the HIV levels to small numbers in the body, but the trade-off is that they have to be taken daily. In their absence, the virus quickly multiplies.
Okay, and what are bNAbs? They are ‘broadly neutralising’ antibodies, because they bind to a large number of virus strains. As antibodies, their job is to attach themselves to infections, and then either disable or illuminate them so that immune cells can find and destroy the invaders.
Why are bNAbs effective against HIV? Because they are like heat-seeking missiles that ‘lock’ on to their target. The HIV can play cat and mouse by rapidly mutating and hiding in infected immune cells, making the immune system unable to identify and neutralise it. But bNAbs can spot parts of the virus that don’t mutate and bind to them.
So are we talking about a possible HIV vaccine? You’ve got that right! Coming up with an effective vaccine would be equal to finding the Holy Grail in HIV research. Researchers are trying to unlock the mechanism whereby the human immune system can produce bNAbs – currently only a small number of HIV-infected patients develop them. If possible, this would open the path to preventing or suppressing HIV infection through a vaccine.
Why would bNAbs be a breakthrough in HIV treatment and prevention?
There are around 35 million HIV-positive people living on the planet who require daily drugs to save them from developing lethal AIDS.
Therefore finding an alternative to daily medication would save a large amount of money for national healthcare systems.
Additionally, according to WHO estimates, there are 17 million HIV-infected people globally who don’t receive antiretroviral therapy, so a different therapy could help to save their lives too.
This board was co-curated by Kayla Sprenger, PhD
Abstract: Strategies to elicit Abs that can neutralize diverse strains of a highly mutable pathogen are likely to result in a potent vaccine. Broadly neutralizing Abs (bnAbs) against HIV have been isolated from patients, proving that the human immune system can evolve them. Using computer simulations and theory, we study immunization with diverse mixtures of variant antigens (Ags). Our results show that particular choices for the number of variant Ags and the mutational distances separating them maximize the probability of inducing bnAbs. The variant Ags represent potentially conflicting selection forces that can frustrate the Darwinian evolutionary process of affinity maturation. An intermediate level of frustration maximizes the chance of evolving bnAbs. A simple model makes vivid the origin of this principle of optimal frustration. Our results, combined with past studies, suggest that an appropriately chosen permutation of immunization with an optimally designed mixture (using the principles that we describe) and sequential immunization with variant Ags that are separated by relatively large mutational distances may best promote the evolution of bnAbs.
Pub.: 24 Oct '16, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Generation of potent antibodies by a mutation-selection process called affinity maturation is a key component of effective immune responses. Antibodies that protect against highly mutable pathogens must neutralize diverse strains. Developing effective immunization strategies to drive their evolution requires understanding how affinity maturation happens in an environment where variants of the same antigen are present. We present an in silico model of affinity maturation driven by antigen variants which reveals that induction of cross-reactive antibodies often occurs with low probability because conflicting selection forces, imposed by different antigen variants, can frustrate affinity maturation. We describe how variables such as temporal pattern of antigen administration influence the outcome of this frustrated evolutionary process. Our calculations predict, and experiments in mice with variant gp120 constructs of the HIV envelope protein confirm, that sequential immunization with antigen variants is preferred over a cocktail for induction of cross-reactive antibodies focused on the shared CD4 binding site epitope.
Pub.: 11 Feb '15, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Affinity maturation is a Darwinian process in which B lymphocytes evolve potent antibodies to encountered antigens and generate immune memory. Highly mutable complex pathogens present an immense antigenic diversity that continues to challenge natural immunity and vaccine design. Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against this diversity by vaccination likely requires multiple exposures to distinct but related antigen variants, and yet how affinity maturation advances under such complex stimulation remains poorly understood. To fill the gap, we present an in silico model of affinity maturation to examine two realistic new aspects pertinent to vaccine development: loss in B cell diversity across successive immunization periods against different variants, and the presence of distracting epitopes that entropically disfavor the evolution of bnAbs. We find these new factors, which introduce additional selection pressures and constraints, significantly influence antibody breadth development, in a way that depends crucially on the temporal pattern of immunization (or selection forces). Curiously, a less diverse B cell seed may even favor the expansion and dominance of cross-reactive clones, but only when conflicting selection forces are presented in series rather than in a mixture. Moreover, the level of frustration due to evolutionary conflict dictates the degree of distraction. We further describe how antigenic histories select evolutionary paths of B cell lineages and determine the predominant mode of antibody responses. Sequential immunization with mutationally distant variants is shown to robustly induce bnAbs that focus on conserved elements of the target epitope, by thwarting strain-specific and distracted lineages. An optimal range of antigen dose underlies a fine balance between efficient adaptation and persistent reaction. These findings provide mechanistic guides to aid in design of vaccine strategies against fast mutating pathogens.
Pub.: 31 Jan '17, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1-2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency.
Pub.: 06 Oct '16, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Passive immunotherapies against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) with maximum breadth and potency to assure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in-vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically SHIV-SF162P3 infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7 (mean 1.1 log10 RNA copies/ml reduction), while the combination of both antibodies suppressed all animals (mean 0.92 log10 RNA copies/ml reduction). Interestingly, the combination of both antibodies had no additive antiviral effect, compared to a single dose of PGT121, potentially reflecting the nearly 10-fold higher potency of PGT121 against this SHIV. Viral rebound occurred in the majority of suppressed animals and was linked to declining plasma bnAb levels over time. In addition to the effect on plasma viremia, bnAb administration resulted in significantly reduced proviral DNA levels in PBMCs after 2 weeks and in lymphnode cells after 10 weeks. Autologous NAb responses and SIV/SHIV specific CD8+ T-cell responses were not significantly enhanced in the bnAb treated animals compared to control animals, arguing against their contribution to the viral effects observed. These results confirm the robust antiviral activity of N6-LS in-vivo, supporting the further clinical development of this antibody.IMPORTANCE Monocloncal antibodies (mAbs) are being considered for passive immunotherapies of HIV-1 infection. A critical requirement for such strategies is the identification of mAbs that recognize the diversity of variants within circulating but also reservoir viruses and mAb combinations might be needed to achieve this goal. This study evaluates the novel bnAb N6-LS, that has superior in-vitro antiviral characteristics, alone or in combination with the bnAb PGT121 in rhesus macauqes that are chronically infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). The results demonstrate that N6-LS potently suppressed plasma viral loads in the majority of animals but that the combination with PGT121 was not superior than PGT121 alone in delaying time to viral rebound or reducing PBMC or lymphnode cell proviral DNA levels. The occurrence of viral escape variants in an N6-LS mono-treated animal, however, argues for the critical need to maximize breadth and anti-viral efficacy by combining bnAbs for therapeutic indications.
Pub.: 26 May '17, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been shown to occasionally display unusual virus neutralization profiles with nonsigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% neutralization against a variety of viruses. The significance of incomplete neutralization for the ability of bnAbs to mediate protective effects in vivo, however, is undetermined. In the current study, we selected two bnAbs, PGT121 and 3BNC117, as they incompletely neutralize the clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) stock (SHIV-327c) at 85% and 70%, respectively, and performed a protection study in rhesus macaques. The animals were intravenously (i.v.) administered PGT121 or 3BNC117 at 10 and 2 mg/kg of body weight before being rectally challenged with a single high dose of SHIV-327c. PGT121 protected 6 out of 7 monkeys, while 6 out of 7 3BNC117-pretreated animals became infected, although with significantly delayed plasma viremia compared to the control animals. These data suggest that complete neutralization is not imperative for bnAbs to prevent infection but that with increasing levels of incomplete neutralization the sterilizing activity diminishes.IMPORTANCE Multiple antibodies have been identified that potently neutralize a broad range of circulating HIV strains. However, not every virus-antibody combination results in complete neutralization of the input virus, suggesting that a fraction of virus particles are resistant to antibody neutralization despite high antibody concentrations. This observation of "incomplete neutralization" is associated with nonsigmoidal neutralization curves plateauing below 100% neutralization, but the significance of the phenomenon for the ability of neutralizing antibodies to mediate protective effects in vivo is undetermined. In this study, we show that the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121, which neutralized only up to 85% of the SHIV-327c challenge stock in vitro, protected 6 out of 7 rhesus macaques against infection while the antibody 3BNC117, which neutralized up to 70% of SHIV-327c in vitro, did not prevent, though it significantly delayed, establishment of infection, suggesting that with increasing levels of incomplete neutralization the ability of a bnAb to mediate sterilizing protection diminishes.
Pub.: 05 Aug '17, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: HIV-1 sequence diversity presents a major challenge for the clinical development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for both therapy and prevention. Sequence variation in critical bNAb epitopes has been observed in most HIV-1-infected individuals and can lead to viral escape after bNAb monotherapy in humans. We show that viral sequence diversity can limit both the therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of bNAbs in rhesus monkeys. We first demonstrate that monotherapy with the V3 glycan-dependent antibody 10-1074, but not PGT121, results in rapid selection of preexisting viral variants containing N332/S334 escape mutations and loss of therapeutic efficacy in simian-HIV (SHIV)-SF162P3-infected rhesus monkeys. We then show that the V3 glycan-dependent antibody PGT121 alone and the V2 glycan-dependent antibody PGDM1400 alone both fail to protect against a mixed challenge with SHIV-SF162P3 and SHIV-325c. In contrast, the combination of both bNAbs provides 100% protection against this mixed SHIV challenge. These data reveal that single bNAbs efficiently select resistant viruses from a diverse challenge swarm to establish infection, demonstrating the importance of bNAb cocktails for HIV-1 prevention.
Pub.: 22 Sep '17, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: In 2016, there were more than 30 million individuals living with HIV-1, ∼1.8 million new HIV-1 infections, and ∼1 million HIV-1-related deaths according to UNAIDS ( unaids.org ). Hence, a preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a global priority. The variant envelopes of HIV-1 present a significant obstacle to vaccine development and the vaccine field has realized that immunization with a single HIV-1 envelope protein will not be sufficient to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe two nonmutually exclusive, targeted pathways with which a multi-envelope HIV-1 vaccine may generate protective immune responses against variant HIV-1. Pathways include (i) the induction of a polyclonal immune response, comprising a plethora of antibodies with subset-reactive and cross-reactive specificities, together able to neutralize diverse HIV-1 (termed Poly-nAb in this report) and (ii) the induction of one or a few monoclonal antibodies, each with a broadly neutralizing specificity (bnAb). With each pathway in mind, we describe challenges and strategies that may ultimately support HIV-1 vaccine success.
Pub.: 10 Jan '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: It is widely thought that generating broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (BnAbs) will protect humans against HIV, given promising data from in vitro experiments and in vivo macaque studies. The primary action of BnAbs is preventing cell-free virus from entering cells. Recent in vitro and macaque data suggest that BnAbs are less potent against cell-associated virus exposure. We speculate that BnAb-based suppression of HIV transmission, particularly if mediated by cell-cell transmission, may result in some exposed subjects carrying a form of latent (or 'occult') HIV infection. Such largely hidden HIV infections may subsequently reactivate when BnAb levels decline. This concept has implications for the achievement of long-term sterilizing immunity to HIV.
Pub.: 26 Jan '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV-1 can evolve after years of an iterative process of virus escape and antibody adaptation that HIV-1 vaccine design seeks to mimic. To enable this, properties that render HIV-1 envelopes (Env) capable of eliciting bnAb responses need to be defined. Here, we followed the evolution of the V2 apex directed bnAb lineage VRC26 in the HIV-1 subtype C superinfected donor CAP256 to investigate the phenotypic changes of the virus populations circulating before and during the early phases of bnAb induction. Longitudinal viruses that evolved from the VRC26-resistant primary infecting (PI) virus, the VRC26-sensitive superinfecting (SU) virus and ensuing PI-SU recombinants revealed substantial phenotypic changes in Env, with a switch in Env properties coinciding with early resistance to VRC26. Decreased sensitivity of SU-like viruses to VRC26 was linked with reduced infectivity, altered entry kinetics and lower sensitivity to neutralization after CD4 attachment. VRC26 maintained neutralization activity against cell-associated CAP256 virus, indicating that escape through the cell-cell transmission route is not a dominant escape pathway. Reduced fitness of the early escape variants and sustained sensitivity in cell-cell transmission are both features that limit virus replication, thereby impeding rapid escape. This supports a scenario where VRC26 allowed only partial viral escape for a prolonged period, possibly increasing the time window for bnAb maturation. Collectively, our data highlight the phenotypic plasticity of the HIV-1 Env in evading bnAb pressure and the need to consider phenotypic traits when selecting and designing Env immunogens. Combinations of Env variants with differential phenotypic patterns and bnAb sensitivity, as we describe here for CAP256, may maximize the potential for inducing bnAb responses by vaccination.
Pub.: 26 Jan '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: The 10E8 antibody targets a helical epitope in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41, and is among the broadest known neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Accordingly, this antibody and its mechanism of action valuably inform the design of effective vaccines and immunotherapies. 10E8 exhibits unusual adaptations to attain specific, high-affinity binding to the MPER at the viral membrane interface. Reversing charge of the basic paratope surface (from net positive to net negative) reportedly lowered its neutralization potency. Here, we hypothesized that by increasing the net positive charge in similar polar surface-patches, the neutralization potency of the antibody may be enhanced. We found that increased positive charge at this paratope surface strengthened an electrostatic interaction between antibody and lipid bilayers, enabling 10E8 to interact spontaneously with membranes. Notably, the modified 10E8 did not gain any observable polyreactivity and neutralized with significantly greater potency. Binding analyses indicated that the optimized 10E8 bound with higher affinity to the epitope peptide anchored in lipid bilayers, and to Env spikes on virions. Overall our data provide a proof-of-principle for rational optimization of 10E8 via manipulation of its interaction with the membrane element of its epitope. However, the observation that a similar mutation strategy did not affect potency of the first-generation anti-MPER antibody 4E10, shows possible limitations of this principle. Altogether, our results emphasize the crucial role played by the viral membrane in the antigenicity of the MPER-TMD of HIV-1.IMPORTANCE The broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) 10E8 blocks infection by nearly all HIV-1 isolates, a capacity which vaccine design seeks to reproduce. Engineered versions of this antibody also represent a promising treatment for HIV infection by passive immunization. Understanding its mechanism of action is therefore important to help develop effective vaccines and biologics to combat HIV/AIDS. 10E8 engages with its helical MPER epitope where the base of the envelope spike submerges into the viral membrane. To enable this interaction, this antibody evolved an unusual property: the ability to interact with the membrane surface. Here, we provide evidence that 10E8 can be made more effective by enhancing its interactions with membranes. Our findings strengthen the idea that to elicit antibodies similar to 10E8, vaccines must reproduce the membrane environment where these antibodies perform their function.
Pub.: 02 Feb '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: An integrated computational approach to in silico drug design was used to identify novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitor scaffolds mimicking broadly neutralizing antibody (bNab) 10E8 targeting the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 protein. This computer-based approach included (i) generation of pharmacophore models representing 3D-arrangements of chemical functionalities that make bNAb 10E8 active towards the gp41 MPER segment, (ii) shape and pharmacophore-based identification of the 10E8-mimetic candidates by a web-oriented virtual screening platform pepMMsMIMIC, (iii) high-throughput docking of the identified compounds with the gp41 MPER peptide, and (iv) molecular dynamics simulations of the docked structures followed by binding free energy calculations. As a result, eight hits-able to mimic pharmacophore properties of bNAb 10E8 by specific and effective interactions with the MPER region of the HIV-1 protein gp41 were selected as the most probable 10E8-mimetic candidates. Similar to 10E8, the predicted compounds target the critically important residues of a highly conserved hinge region of the MPER peptide that provides a conformational flexibility necessary for its functioning in cell-virus membrane fusion process. In light of the data obtained, the identified small molecules may present promising HIV-1 fusion inhibitor scaffolds for the design of novel potent antiviral drugs.
Pub.: 15 Feb '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving two scFv binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single-gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, namely BiIA-SG, displayed significantly improved breadth and potency. BiIA-SG neutralized all 124 HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses tested, including global subtypes/recombinant forms, transmitted/founder viruses, and variants less or not susceptible to parental and many bnAbs, with an average IC50 value of 0.073 µ/ml (range < 0.001 to 1.03 µg/ml). In humanized mice, an injection of BiIA-SG conferred sterile protection when administered prior to challenges with diverse live HIV-1 stains. Moreover, while BiIA-SG delayed viral rebound in a short-term therapeutic setting when combined with cART, a single injection of AAV-transferred BiIA-SG gene resulted dose-dependently in prolonged in vivo expression of BiIA-SG, which was associated with complete viremia control and subsequent elimination of infected cells in humanized mice. These results warrant the clinical development of BiIA-SG as a promising bs-bnAb-based biomedical intervention for prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infections.
Pub.: 21 Feb '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored as passively administered therapeutic and preventative agents. However, the extensively diversified HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) rapidly acquire mutations to evade individual bNAbs in monotherapy regimens. The use of a "single" agent to simultaneously target distinct Env epitopes is desirable to overcome viral diversity. Here, we report the use of tandem single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) domains of two bNAbs, specific for the CD4-binding site and V3 glycan patch, to form anti-HIV-1 bispecific ScFvs (Bi-ScFvs). The optimal Bi-ScFv crosslinks adjacent protomers within one HIV-1 Env spike and has greater neutralization breadth than its parental bNAbs. Furthermore, the combination of this Bi-ScFv with a third bNAb recognizing the Env membrane proximal external region (MPER) results in a trispecific bNAb, which has nearly pan-isolate neutralization breadth and high potency. Thus, multispecific antibodies combining functional moieties of bNAbs could achieve outstanding neutralization capacity with augmented avidity.
Pub.: 02 Mar '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Major advances in donor identification, antigen probe design, and experimental methods to clone pathogen-specific antibodies have led to an exponential growth in the number of newly characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Characterization of these bnAbs has defined new epitopes and novel modes of recognition that can result in potent neutralization of HIV-1. However, the translation of envelope recognition profiles in biophysical assays into an understanding of in vivo activity has lagged behind, and identification of subjects and mAbs with potent antiviral activity has remained reliant on empirical evaluation of neutralization potency and breadth. To begin to address this discrepancy between recombinant protein recognition and virus neutralization, we studied the fine epitope specificity of a panel of CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies to define the molecular recognition features of functionally potent humoral responses targeting the HIV-1 envelope site bound by CD4. Whereas previous studies have used neutralization data and machine-learning methods to provide epitope maps, here, this approach was reversed, demonstrating that simple binding assays of fine epitope specificity can prospectively identify broadly neutralizing CD4bs-specific mAbs. Building on this result, we show that epitope mapping and prediction of neutralization breadth can also be accomplished in the assessment of polyclonal serum responses. Thus, this study identifies a set of CD4bs bnAb signature amino acid residues and demonstrates that sensitivity to mutations at signature positions is sufficient to predict neutralization breadth of polyclonal sera with a high degree of accuracy across cohorts and across clades.
Pub.: 09 Mar '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses. bNAb specificities were studied by ELISA using mutated gp120, neutralization assays with mutated viruses, and peptide competition. Epitope specificities were also elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a panel of diverse HIV-1 isolates. Broadly neutralizing sera were found among 9.3% LTNPs, both elite (7%) and viremic controllers (14%). Within the broadly neutralizing sera, CD4 binding site antibodies were detected by ELISA in 4/12 LTNPs (33%), and 16/33 of TPs (48%). Anti-MPER antibodies were detected in 6/12 LTNPs (50%) and 14/33 TPs (42%) whereas glycan-dependent HIV-1 bNAbs were more frequent in LTNPs (11/12, 92%) as compared to TPs (12/33, 36%). A good concordance between standard serum mapping and neutralization-based mapping was observed. LTNPs, both viremic and elite controllers, showed broad humoral immune responses against HIV-1, including activity against many major epitopes involved in bNAbs-mediated protection.
Pub.: 21 Mar '18, Pinned: 29 Mar '18
Abstract: Precisely defining how viral mutations affect HIV's sensitivity to antibodies is vital to develop and evaluate vaccines and antibody immunotherapeutics. Despite great effort, a full map of escape mutants has not been delineated for an anti-HIV antibody. We describe a massively parallel experimental approach to quantify how all single amino acid mutations to HIV Envelope (Env) affect neutralizing antibody sensitivity in the context of replication-competent virus. We apply this approach to PGT151, a broadly neutralizing antibody recognizing a combination of Env residues and glycans. We confirm sites previously defined by structural and functional studies and reveal additional sites of escape, such as positively charged mutations in the antibody-Env interface. Evaluating the effect of each amino acid at each site lends insight into biochemical mechanisms of escape throughout the epitope, highlighting roles for charge-charge repulsions. Thus, comprehensively mapping HIV antibody escape gives a quantitative, mutation-level view of Env evasion of neutralization.
Pub.: 06 Jun '17, Pinned: 29 Mar '18