Scientist, Sugarcane Breeding Institute
Hybrids from allied genetic background involving species of Saccharum and allied genera Evaluated.
Three groups of Saccharum hybrids clones, totaling 24, derived from diverse genetic background involving species of Saccharum and allied genera were evaluated in RBD with two replications along with four commercial checks viz., Co 0238, CoJ 64 (early standard), CoS 767 and CoS 8436 (midlate standard) at ICAR- Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional centre, Karnal for their biomass potential under sub-tropical climate of India. First group clones includes nine inter-generic hybrid (IGH) involving Erianthus arundinaceous in their ancestry. Second group clones includes nine inter- specific hybrids (ISH) derived from S. barberi (North Indian cane) and S. sinense (Chinese cane) as one of the parent and third group clones includes six interspecific hybrids involving S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum. Dry matter, fresh biomass yield and dry biomass yield were estimated from each clones at harvest beside estimation of juice brix %, sucrose % and purity % and fibre%. The result of study indicated that the interspecific hybrids of Saccharum produced more biomass potential compared to commercial varieties, which were advanced generation selections of interspecific crosses. Thirteen of the hybrids recorded significantly higher dry biomass yield than the experimental mean of 28.97 t ha-1 recorded in subtropical condition. Among first group inter-generic hybrids, GU 07- 3849 (49.23 t ha-1), GU 07-3730 (37.96 t ha-1) and GU 07-3764 (37.54 t ha-1) had significantly higher biomass value which could be attributed due to introgression of Erianthus genome. Two ISH hybrid viz., KGS 2004-48 (41.69 t ha-1) and KGS 2004-60 (39.05 t ha-1) derived from BC progenies of S. barberi and S. sinense, have also recorded higher biomass. In third group of hybrids with S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum background, only two hybrids namely, 99-438 (37.81 t ha-1) and 99-81 (37.22 t ha-1) had higher dry biomass. Fibre% had positive correlation with total dry matter (TDM) and TDM, fresh biomass, stalk weight and number of millable canes were positively correlated with dry biomass yield.
Abstract: Drought is one of the very important growth-limiting factors for sugarcane production in China. Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline synthesis, and it plays an important role in plant response to drought stress. In this study, sugarcane P5CS (SoP5CS) gene was cloned and submitted in GenBank with the accession number KJ546350. The gene SoP5CS was 2151 bp in length, encoding 716 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.73 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.14. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of SoP5CS was higher in leaf than in root and stalk, and strongly induced under ABA, PEG, NaCl and 4 °C treatments. The plant excessive expression vector of SoP5CS was built and transformed into sugarcane calli by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and transgenic sugarcane plants were obtained. Under drought stress, some transgenic lines with overexpressed SoP5CS showed significantly higher in SoP5CS expression level, proline accumulation, abscisic acid content, superoxide dismutase activity and relative water content but lower MDA content and chlorophyll (SPAD value) decrease as compared with the WT plants. Moreover, all the transgenic plants increased drought stress tolerance. Our findings indicated that SoP5CS plays an important role in response to abiotic stresses and overexpression of SoP5CS can improve drought tolerance in transgenic sugarcane plants.
Pub.: 15 Nov '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Author(s): Prittesh Patel, B.K. Rajkumar, Preeti Parmar, Rusabh Shah, R. Krishnamurthy Sugarcane is susceptible to red rot disease caused by phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went which ultimately affect the economy of farmers as well as sugar based industry. One of the various ways to control this devastating disease is to develop disease resistance sugarcane cultivar and this requires the complete understanding of genetic makeup of pathogen. Although South Gujarat is well known sugarcane cultivating area, less published data can be found about PCR-based genetic diversity in prevalent C. falcatum accessions. So, present investigation aims at finding molecular variation among the ten accessions of C. falcatum using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. A total of 35 RAPD and 39 ISSR primers were screened across 10 C. falcatum accessions, of which 15 RAPD and 21 ISSR primers have showed consistent amplification. Statistics related to genetic variation were estimated using NTSYS-PC by means of Dice’s coefficient. The results revealed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism and similarity coefficient ranged from 0.43 to 0.91 and 0.73 to 0.93 in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. The dendrogram generated using RAPD, ISSR and combined RAPD-ISSR grouped accessions into different clusters which reveal considerable level molecular variation among the C. falcatum accessions. It is also evident from PCA plots that accessions are rather dispersed with tested marker systems indicating good genetic base. So, in nut shell, we found considerable genetic variation and relatedness within C. falcatum accessions collected from different areas of south Gujarat, India using RAPD and ISSR markers.
Pub.: 01 Dec '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
Abstract: Hormesis is considered a dose-response phenomenon characterized by growth stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. The hormetic response by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane was evaluated using a temporary immersion system.Sugarcane shoots were used as explants cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium with AgNPs at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L. Shoot multiplication rate and length were used to determine hormetic response. Total content of phenolic compounds of sugarcane, mineral nutrition, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined.Results were presented as a dose-response curve. Stimulation phase growth was observed at 50 mg/L AgNPs, whereas inhibition phase was detected at 200 mg/L AgNPs. Mineral nutrient analysis showed changes in macronutrient and micronutrient contents due to the effect of AgNPs. Moreover, AgNPs induced ROS production and increased total phenolic content, with a dose-dependent effect.Results suggested that the production of ROS and mineral nutrition are key mechanisms of AgNP-induced hormesis and that phenolic accumulation was obtained as a response of the plant to stress produced by high doses of AgNPs. Therefore, small doses of AgNPs in the culture medium could be an efficient strategy for commercial micropropagation.
Pub.: 15 Dec '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
Abstract: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and three different plastidic DNA regions (rpl16, rps16, atpF-atpH) were used to investigate species identity in the genus Wolffiella. For this purpose, clones (67 in total) belonging to all ten species were selected. Almost all the species were represented by more than one clone. The fingerprinting technique, AFLP, clearly distinguished the species, W. caudata, W. gladiata, W. neotropica, W. rotunda, and W. welwitschii. Apart from confirming the molecular identity of these five species, the plastidic markers could delineate two additional species, W. hyalina and W. denticulata, although the conclusion concerning the latter is restricted by the availability of only one clone. The efficiency of the plastid-derived markers in identifying the number of species-specific clusters followed the sequence rps16 > rpl16 > atpF-atpH. The species W. lingulata, W. oblonga, and W. repanda could not be identified by any of the molecular methods presented here, but could be strictly defined on a morphological basis. In several clones, high amounts of genetic admixtures between different species were detected. Further, simulation studies demonstrated that these clones are genetic hybrids. This might be one of the obstacles in molecular identification of species in the genus Wolffiella.
Pub.: 14 Dec '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
Abstract: Publication date: October 2017 Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5 Author(s): M.S.R. Krishna, M. Surender, S. Sokka Reddy Improvement of QPM (Quality Protein Maize) along with high content of lysine and tryptophan had foremost importance in maize breeding programme. The efficient and easiest way of developing QPM hybrids was of backcross breeding in marker aided selection. Hence the present investigation was aimed with an endeavour to convert elite maize inbred line BML-6 into QPM line. CML-181 was identified to be a donor variety as it revealed high-quality polymorphism with BML-6 for opaque-2 gene specific marker umc1066. Non-QPM inbred line BML-6 was crossed with QPM donor CML-181 and produced F1 followed by BC1F1 and BC2F1 population was developed. Foreground selection was carried out with umc1066 in F1, and selected plants were used for BC1F1 and BC2F1 populations. Two hundred plants were screened in both BC1F1 and BC2F1 population with umc1066 for foreground selection. The selected plants were screened for foreground selection with amino acid modifiers. Foreground selected plants for both opaque-2 and amino acid modifiers were screened for background selection for BML-6 genome. Recurrent parent genome (RPG) was determined for BC2F1 population plants. Three plants have shown with RPG 90–93% in two generation back cross population. Three selected BC2F2 populations were screened for foreground and back ground selection followed by agronomical and biochemical evaluation. The QPM converted version of BML-6 contains 0.97% of tryptophan and 4.02% of lysine concentration in a protein. Agronomical and biochemical screened BC2F2 plants were selfed for BC2F3. QPM version of BML-6 line can be used for the development QPM version of maize single cross hybrids.
Pub.: 05 Nov '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
Abstract: Aspen groves along the Niobrara River in Nebraska have long been a biogeographic curiosity due to morphological differences from nearby remnant Populus tremuloides populations. Pleistocene hybridization between P. tremuloides and P. grandidentata has been proposed, but the nearest P. grandidentata populations are currently several hundred kilometers east. We tested the hybrid-origin hypothesis using genetic data and characterized putative hybrids phenotypically.We compared nuclear microsatellite loci and chloroplast sequences of Niobrara River aspens to their putative parental species. Parental species and putative hybrids were also grown in a common garden for phenotypic comparison. On the common garden plants, we measured leaf morphological traits and leaf-level spectral reflectance profiles, from which chemical traits were derived.The genetic composition of the three unique Niobrara aspen genotypes is consistent with the hybridization hypothesis and with maternal chloroplast inheritance from P. grandidentata. Leaf margin dentition and abaxial pubescence differentiated taxa, with the hybrids showing intermediate values. Spectral profiles allowed statistical separation of taxa in short-wave infrared wavelengths, with hybrids showing intermediate values, indicating that traits associated with internal structure of leaves and water absorption may vary among taxa. However, reflectance values in the visible region did not differentiate taxa, indicating that traits related to pigments are not differentiated.Both genetic and phenotypic results support the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for these genetically unique aspens. However, low genetic diversity and ongoing ecological and climatic threats to the hybrid taxon present a challenge for conservation of these relictual boreal communities.
Pub.: 17 Dec '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
Abstract: Publication date: January 2018 Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Esin Eren, Ceyda Alver, Gozde Yurdabak Karaca, Emre Uygun, Aysegul Uygun Oksuz A series of electrochromic hybrid materials were synthesized with in-situ polymerization of aniline, 2-fluoroaniline and N-methylaniline onto tungsten trioxide (WO3) powders using a rotating capacitively coupled radio frequency (rf) plasma process. The materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Thin films of tungsten trioxide/polyaniline (WO3/PANI), tungsten trioxide/poly(2-fluoroaniline) (WO3/PFANI) and tungsten trioxide/poly(n-methylaniline) (WO3/PMANI) hybrid powders were obtained by e-beam technique onto flexible conducting polyethylene terephthalate electrodes for electrochromic works. The optical and electrochromic properties of WO3 hybrids-based ECDs were investigated by optical and electrochemical measurements. It is observed that electrochromic performance of hybrid films has changed as depending on electron acceptor or donor properties of substituent group onto PANI chain. The results of flexible electrochromic devices (ECDs) indicated that WO3/PMANI hybrid-based ECD has a high optical contrast of 49% at 750nm, reversible coloration with efficiency of 361cm2/C and fast switching times (bleaching time: 1.41s, coloration time: 0.67s). Graphical abstract
Pub.: 17 Dec '17, Pinned: 20 Dec '17
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