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A pinboard by
M. Oliur Rahman

Professor, University of Dhaka

PINBOARD SUMMARY

Title of the Research: Biological activities of essential oil and extracts from Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) Robinson: An analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic evaluation

Abstract: Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) Robinson belonging to the family Asteraceae is a twining herb, characterized by its cordate leaves, capitulum inflorescence, white flowers, narrowly oblong cypsela type of fruits and white pappus. The species has long been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to treat cuts, wounds, and dengue fever. The present study aimed at evaluating the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of the essential oil (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and two extracts, viz., chloroform and ethyl acetate (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), from aerial parts of Mikania cordata. The essential oil of M. cordata showed potent analgesic effect (47.33% writhing inhibition and up to 95.86% elongation of reaction time at 50 mg/kg body weight dose) in both models (Acetic acid induced writhings and Hot plate reaction time in mice), suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, the essential oil produced dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect (the 50mg/kg b.w. showed highest 72.80% edema inhibition at 4h respectively). The chloroform extracts and ethyl acetate extracts possessed moderate inhibitory activity on acetic acid induced writhings (up to 29.33% and 16.65% inhibition, respectively at the dose 800 mg/kg b.w.) and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats (up to 79.18%, and 42.37% elongation of reaction time, respectively at the dose 800 mg/kg b.w.) as well as carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats (up to 34.31% and 15.27% of edema inhibition, respectively at dose 800 mg/kg b.w). Moreover, the essential oil and chloroform extract displayed an excellent antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermic rats, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had no antipyretic activity. Results of the present study confirmed the traditional use of M. cordata for the treatment of pain, inflammations and fever, claiming that the essential oil as well as the leaf extracts of the species have potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, and calls for further investigation to determine the active phyto-constituent(s).

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Solanum paniculatum L. decreases levels of inflammatory cytokines by reducing NF-κB, T-bet and GATA3 gene expression in vitro.

Abstract: Solanum paniculatum L., popularly known as jurubeba, is a common subtropical plant from Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina, that is used in folk medicine for the treatment of anemia, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions in general. In addition to that, an ethnobotanical survey in "Todos os Santos" Bay have pointed out S. paniculatum as an herb to treat asthma. Previous publications have shown that S. paniculatum possesses antibiotic, antioxidant and modulatory effects on gastric acid secretion; however, its anti-inflammatory potential remains unexplored.Herein, we analyzed the hexane extract of S. paniculatum fruits (SpE) for the presence of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol and investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of SpE in vitro.SpE was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for standardization and quantification of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice were cultivated and stimulated with pokeweed mitogen and also exposed to 15, 30, and 60µg/mL of SpE. Following treatment, levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 in the culture supernatants were assessed by ELISA. We also evaluated nitric oxide (NO) production by murine LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages using the Griess technique. In addition, the ability of SpE to stabilize membranes was assessed using a model of hemolysis induced by heat on murine erythrocytes. Gene expression of Th1-cell-specific Tbx21 transcription factor (T-bet), zinc-finger transcription factor-3 (GATA3), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in murine spleen cells were assessed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR).SpE at 15, 30 and 60µg/mL significantly attenuated cell proliferation, decreased IL-4 release, reduced NO production, and improved erythrocyte membrane stabilization in a concentration-dependent manner. SpE was also able to decrease the release of IFN-γ without altering IL-10 levels. The mechanism whereby SpE decreased inflammatory markers may be related to the reduction of NF-κB, T-bet and GATA3 gene expression.This study is the first to test the anti-inflammatory action of S. paniculatum. Herein, we provided evidence for the popular use of S. paniculatum in inflammatory conditions. Additional studies must be conducted to further explore the anti-inflammatory potential of SpE and to elucidate possible clinical applications.

Pub.: 22 Jul '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17