PhD student, University of Western Ontario
Assessing the effects of recovering sound audibility on hearing abilities that require 2 normal ears
As long as both ears have normal hearing sensitivity, humans fail to notice their contribution to easily detecting sound sources from a variety of directions around them. The benefit of ignoring undesired sounds in a noisy environment and focusing on the target speech is overlooked, and the advantage of detecting soft sounds is neglected. These skills are established by the ability of the listeners to detect small differences in level and arrival time of sound reaching to the ears.
When these abilities are gradually compromised by an ear disease along with limitation in the audibility of the sounds in one ear, the importance of hearing sounds with two normally functioning ears becomes apparent. The gradual disrupted skills prompt the listeners who suffer from even a moderate hearing loss in one ear to look for a treatment and regain the missing abilities. The expectation of the patients is beyond the improvement in the hearing sensitivity alone. Indeed, re-attainment the previously discussed hearing skills are more frequently the priority.
The important questions that yet to be answered are 1) whether the two-ear hearing skills (known as binaural hearing) could be mediated after normal hearing sensitivity is recovered, 2) how long after the treatment this recovery would be achieved. In my PhD research project in Hearing Sciences, I am attempting to answer these questions via a longitudinal multi experiment study that assesses various aspects of the binaural hearing abilities of patients with unilateral hearing loss before and after their treatment.
Answers to these questions will lead us to develop new rehabilitation strategies and bring them along the approved medical treatment. The final goal is to assist hearing impaired patients to re-achieve the effective communication skills they had prior starting the ear disease. This may enable the patients to reestablish their daily routine soon after the medical treatment which only improves the audibility of the sounds.
Abstract: Previous research has shown that loudness perception is modified in adult listeners following 2 weeks of continuous sensory deprivation or stimulation [Formby, C. et al. (2003). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 55-58]. However, it is not known if the auditory system undergoes physiological changes or if the listeners simply recalibrate their behavioral criteria such that they become more, or less, conservative following sensory deprivation and stimulation, respectively. The results of this study, comparing threshold of the middle ear acoustic reflex in the two ears of adult listeners after use of a unilateral earplug, are consistent with adaptive plasticity. Acoustic reflexes were measured at a lower sound pressure level in the ear that had been plugged for 7 days. Thus, the effect is consistent with a central gain mechanism mediated by a process within the brainstem.
Pub.: 31 Jul '09, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: The binaural interaction component (BIC) is the residual auditory brainstem response (ABR) obtained after subtracting the sum of monaurally evoked from binaurally evoked ABRs. The DN1 peak-the first negative peak of the BIC-has been postulated to have diagnostic value as a biomarker for binaural hearing abilities. Indeed, not only do DN1 amplitudes depend systematically upon binaural cues to location (interaural time and level differences), but they are also predictive of central hearing deficits in humans. A prominent issue in using BIC measures as a diagnostic biomarker is that DN1 amplitudes not only exhibit considerable variability across subjects, but also within subjects across different measurement sessions.In this study, the authors investigate the DN1 amplitude measurement reliability by conducting repeated measurements on different days in eight adult guinea pigs.Despite consistent ABR thresholds, ABR and DN1 amplitudes varied between and within subjects across recording sessions. However, the study analysis reveals that DN1 amplitudes varied proportionally with parent monaural ABR amplitudes, suggesting that common experimental factors likely account for the variability in both waveforms. Despite this variability, the authors show that the shape of the dependence between DN1 amplitude and interaural time difference is preserved. The authors then provide a BIC normalization strategy using monaural ABR amplitude that reduces the variability of DN1 peak measurements. Finally, the authors evaluate this normalization strategy in the context of detecting changes of the DN1 amplitude-to-interaural time difference relationship.The study results indicate that the BIC measurement variability can be reduced by a factor of two by performing a simple and objective normalization operation. The authors discuss the potential for this normalized BIC measure as a biomarker for binaural hearing.
Pub.: 28 May '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: The effect of interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) on wave 4 of the binaural and summed monaural auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) as well as on the DN1 component of the binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR in young and old Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was investigated. Measurements were made at a fixed sound pressure level (SPL) and a fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold to compensate for individual hearing threshold differences. In both stimulation modes (fixed SPL and fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold) an effect of ITD on the latency and the amplitude of wave 4 as well as of the BIC was observed. With increasing absolute ITD values BIC latencies were increased and amplitudes were decreased. ILD had a much smaller effect on these measures. Old animals showed a reduced amplitude of the DN1 component. This difference was due to a smaller wave 4 in the summed monaural ABRs of old animals compared to young animals whereas wave 4 in the binaural-evoked ABR showed no age-related difference. In old animals the small amplitude of the DN1 component was correlated with small binaural-evoked wave 1 and wave 3 amplitudes. This suggests that the reduced peripheral input affects central binaural processing which is reflected in the BIC.
Pub.: 10 May '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues.
Pub.: 29 Sep '15, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Humans, and many other species, exploit small differences in the timing of sounds at the two ears (interaural time difference, ITD) to locate their source and to enhance their detection in background noise. Despite their importance in everyday listening tasks, however, the neural representation of ITDs in human listeners remains poorly understood, and few studies have assessed ITD sensitivity to a similar resolution to that reported perceptually. Here, we report an objective measure of ITD sensitivity in electroencephalography (EEG) signals to abrupt modulations in the interaural phase of amplitude-modulated low-frequency tones. Specifically, we measured following responses to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal signals (520-Hz carrier) in which the stimulus phase at each ear was manipulated to produce discrete interaural phase modulations at minima in the modulation cycle-interaural phase modulation following responses (IPM-FRs). The depth of the interaural phase modulation (IPM) was defined by the sign and the magnitude of the interaural phase difference (IPD) transition which was symmetric around zero. Seven IPM depths were assessed over the range of ±22 ° to ±157 °, corresponding to ITDs largely within the range experienced by human listeners under natural listening conditions (120 to 841 μs). The magnitude of the IPM-FR was maximal for IPM depths in the range of ±67.6 ° to ±112.6 ° and correlated well with performance in a behavioural experiment in which listeners were required to discriminate sounds containing IPMs from those with only static IPDs. The IPM-FR provides a sensitive measure of binaural processing in the human brain and has a potential to assess temporal binaural processing.
Pub.: 16 Sep '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Spatial judgments are often dominated by low-frequency binaural cues and onset cues when binaural cues vary across the spectrum and duration, respectively, of a brief sound. This study combined these dimensions to assess the spectrotemporal weighting of binaural information. Listeners discriminated target interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) carried by the onset, offset, or full duration of a 4-kHz Gabor click train with a 2-ms period in the presence or absence of a diotic 500-Hz interferer tone. ITD and ILD thresholds were significantly elevated by the interferer in all conditions and by a similar amount to previous reports for static cues. Binaural interference was dramatically greater for ITD targets lacking onset cues compared to onset and full-duration conditions. Binaural interference for ILD targets was similar across dynamic-cue conditions. These effects mirror the baseline discriminability of dynamic ITD and ILD cues [Stecker and Brown. (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 3092-3103], consistent with stronger interference for less-robust/higher-variance cues. The results support the view that binaural cue integration occurs simultaneously across multiple variance-weighted dimensions, including time and frequency.
Pub.: 31 Oct '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a sound-evoked noninvasively measured electrical potential representing the sum of neuronal activity in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. ABR peak amplitudes and latencies are widely used in human and animal auditory research and for clinical screening. The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR stands for the difference between the sum of the monaural ABRs and the ABR obtained with binaural stimulation. The BIC comprises a series of distinct waves, the largest of which (DN1) has been used for evaluating binaural hearing in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Based on data from animal and human studies, the authors discuss the possible anatomical and physiological bases of the BIC (DN1 in particular). The effects of electrode placement and stimulus characteristics on the binaurally evoked ABR are evaluated. The authors review how interaural time and intensity differences affect the BIC and, analyzing these dependencies, draw conclusion about the mechanism underlying the generation of the BIC. Finally, the utility of the BIC for clinical diagnoses are summarized.
Pub.: 28 May '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i.e. during multi-talker, or "Cocktail Party" listening). We measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) when children prepared to direct attention to the spatial location or gender of an upcoming target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Compared to normally-hearing children, hearing-impaired children showed significantly less evidence of preparatory brain activity when required to direct spatial attention. This finding is consistent with the idea that hearing-impaired children have a reduced ability to prepare spatial attention for an upcoming talker. Moreover, preparatory brain activity was not restored when hearing-impaired children listened with their acoustic hearing aids. An implication of these findings is that steps to improve auditory attention alongside acoustic hearing aids may be required to improve the ability of hearing-impaired children to understand speech in the presence of competing talkers.
Pub.: 16 May '17, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: For human listeners, cues for vertical-plane localization are provided by direction-dependent pinna filtering. This study quantified listeners' weighting of the spectral cues from each ear as a function of stimulus lateral angle, interaural time difference (ITD), and interaural level difference (ILD). Subjects indicated the apparent position of headphone-presented noise bursts synthesized in virtual auditory space. The synthesis filters for the two ears either corresponded to the same location or to two different locations separated vertically by 20 deg. Weighting of each ear's spectral information was determined by a multiple regression between the elevations to which each ear's spectrum corresponded and the vertical component of listeners' responses. The apparent horizontal source location was controlled either by choosing synthesis filters corresponding to locations on or 30 deg left or right of the median plane or by attenuating or delaying the signal at one ear. For broadband stimuli, spectral weighting and apparent lateral angle were determined primarily by ITD. Only for high-pass stimuli were weighting and lateral angle determined primarily by ILD. The results suggest that the weighting of monaural spectral cues and the perceived lateral angle of a sound source depend similarly on ITD, ILD, and stimulus spectral range.
Pub.: 08 Jun '07, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age.Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs.Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR.Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.
Pub.: 18 Feb '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Individual differences exist in sound localization performance even for normal-hearing listeners. Some of these differences might be related to acoustical differences in localization cues carried by the head related transfer functions (HRTF). Recent data suggest that individual differences in sound localization performance could also have a perceptual origin. The localization of an auditory target in the up/down and front/back dimensions requires the analysis of the spectral shape of the stimulus. In the present study, we investigated the role of an acoustic factor, the prominence of the spectral shape ("spectral strength") and the role of a perceptual factor, the listener's sensitivity to spectral shape, in individual differences observed in sound localization performance. Spectral strength was computed as the spectral distance between the magnitude spectrum of the HRTFs and a flat spectrum. Sensitivity to spectral shape was evaluated using spectral-modulation thresholds measured with a broadband (0.2-12.8 kHz) or high-frequency (4-16 kHz) carrier and for different spectral modulation frequencies (below 1 cycle/octave, between 1 and 2 cycles/octave, above 2 cycles/octave). Data obtained from 19 young normal-hearing listeners showed that low thresholds for spectral modulation frequency below 1 cycle/octave with a high-frequency carrier were associated with better sound localization performance. No correlation was found between sound localization performance and the spectral strength of the HRTFs. These results suggest that differences in perceptual ability, rather than acoustical differences, contribute to individual differences in sound localization performance in noise.
Pub.: 19 Jun '13, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: There are significant challenges to restoring binaural hearing to children who have been deaf from an early age. The uncoordinated and poor temporal information available from cochlear implants distorts perception of interaural timing differences normally important for sound localization and listening in noise. Moreover, binaural development can be compromised by bilateral and unilateral auditory deprivation. Here, we studied perception of both interaural level and timing differences in 79 children/adolescents using bilateral cochlear implants and 16 peers with normal hearing. They were asked on which side of their head they heard unilaterally or bilaterally presented click- or electrical pulse- trains. Interaural level cues were identified by most participants including adolescents with long periods of unilateral cochlear implant use and little bilateral implant experience. Interaural timing cues were not detected by new bilateral adolescent users, consistent with previous evidence. Evidence of binaural timing detection was, for the first time, found in children who had much longer implant experience but it was marked by poorer than normal sensitivity and abnormally strong dependence on current level differences between implants. In addition, children with prior unilateral implant use showed a higher proportion of responses to their first implanted sides than children implanted simultaneously. These data indicate that there are functional repercussions of developing binaural hearing through bilateral cochlear implants, particularly when provided sequentially; nonetheless, children have an opportunity to use these devices to hear better in noise and gain spatial hearing.
Pub.: 23 Dec '14, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
Abstract: Spatial hearing skills are essential for children as they grow, learn and play. These skills provide critical cues for determining the locations of sources in the environment, and enable segregation of important sounds, such as speech, from background maskers or interferers. Spatial hearing depends on availability of monaural cues and binaural cues. The latter result from integration of inputs arriving at the two ears from sounds that vary in location. The binaural system has exquisite mechanisms for capturing differences between the ears in both time of arrival and intensity. The major cues that are thus referred to as being vital for binaural hearing are: interaural differences in time (ITDs) and interaural differences in levels (ILDs). In children with normal hearing (NH), spatial hearing abilities are fairly well developed by age 4–5 years. In contrast, most children who are deaf and hear through cochlear implants (CIs) do not have an opportunity to experience normal, binaural acoustic hearing early in life. These children may function by having to utilize auditory cues that are degraded with regard to numerous stimulus features. In recent years there has been a notable increase in the number of children receiving bilateral CIs, and evidence suggests that while having two CIs helps them function better than when listening through a single CI, these children generally perform worse than their NH peers. This paper reviews some of the recent work on bilaterally implanted children. The focus is on measures of spatial hearing, including sound localization, release from masking for speech understanding in noise and binaural sensitivity using research processors. Data from behavioral and electrophysiological studies are included, with a focus on the recent work of the authors and their collaborators. The effects of auditory plasticity and deprivation on the emergence of binaural and spatial hearing are discussed along with evidence for reorganized processing from both behavioral and electrophysiological studies. The consequences of both unilateral and bilateral auditory deprivation during development suggest that the relevant set of issues is highly complex with regard to successes and the limitations experienced by children receiving bilateral cochlear implants.
Pub.: 30 Jan '16, Pinned: 30 Aug '17
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