Lecturer II, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria


This research work investigates the acceptability and the non acceptability acceptability of the zobo drink sold at different markets within Zaria metropolis and this depends on the occurrence bacterial load on the zobo drink. The research work also investigates the occurrence of the types of specie of bacteria in the zobo drink as this helps to ascertain the source of contamination. Finally, the importance of this research work is that to enlighten the public on the danger of drinking this kind of contaminated dBACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ZOBO DRINK SOLD AT 5 DIFFERENT MARKETS WITHIN ZARIA METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT Zobo drink is a locally made beverage usually prepared and patronize in Nigeria especially in the northern part of the country, Zaria inclusive. It is a bright red beverage prepared from Roselle leaves (Hibiscus sabdariffa). This beverage has a medicinal importance which includes; curing of high blood pressure, constipation, diabetes, fever, kidney disease, cancer, e.t.c. Apart from medicinal importance, zobo drink may serve as a vehicle for transmission of many infectious diseases. Therefore, the bacteriological analysis of zobo drink is necessary as a result of the aforementioned statements. A total of 20 samples of zobo drink were purchased from 5 different markets, 4 samples from each market. These samples were analyzed using standard method. All the analyzed samples were found to contain varying levels of bacterial contamination. The viable bacterial count (VBC) ranges from 1.4 105 to 1.2 106CFU/ml. This shows that all the samples (20/20) had a VBC above the acceptable limit of <104 CFU/ml. The MPN of the total samples also indicates that they exceed the recommended safe level of zero coliform bacterium per 100ml. Four different species were isolated from all the samples which include Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogens, and Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogens were found to be present in all the samples, Salmonella typhi was present in 13 samples and Staphylococcus aureus in 8 samples. This research work indicates that these zobo drink samples sold at these markets can serve as vehicle of transmitting a variety of infections. Therefore, proper hygiene and good manufacturing process should be encouraged. Equipments or containers, water


Potability of water sources in relation to metal and bacterial contamination in some northern and north-eastern districts of India.

Abstract: A total of 1094 water samples from 326 springs, 207 streams, 183 dug wells, 151 piped supplies, 90 tube wells, 75 hand pumps, 60 rivers and 2 lakes were collected from eight northern and six north-eastern districts of India. Samples were analysed to assess their potability by estimating the level of heavy metals and bacterial (coliform and faecal coliform) contaminations. Iron was found in a maximum number (53%) of water samples from hand pumps, followed by lead in 43% of the tube wells, chromium in 16% of dug wells, cadmium in 13% of streams and manganese in 7% of hand pumps above their maximum admissible concentrations (MACs). Maximum metal pollution has been observed in a considerable number of water samples from Doda, followed by Almora, Mirzapur and Bankura. Hand pump water samples exhibited maximum metal pollution followed by dug well, spring, stream and river water samples. Contamination of coliform and/or faecal coliform bacteria ranged between 41% and 67% of water samples from open water sources but it was also less, i.e. 6-15% of water samples from tube wells and hand pumps. In general, 42-85% of water samples from districts surveyed, except from Jammu (18%) and Mirzapur (27%), were found to be bacteriologically unsatisfactory. Since toxic metals and pathogenic bacteria pose a risk to public health, monitoring of drinking water sources is required.

Pub.: 01 Nov '94, Pinned: 30 Oct '17

Water quality in turkey farms in Khemisset (Morocco) and potential risk factors.

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to assess the microbiological and physical/chemical quality of water in broiler turkey farms in the province of Khemisset (north-western Morocco) and, based on a questionnaire, to ascertain potential risk factors for contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms. A total of 80 samples were collected and analysed in 20 farms (four from each farm). At the main inlet to the water line at the entrance to each turkey house, 100% of the samples were of unacceptable quality in terms of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci, sulphitereducing anaerobes and enterococci. A significant reduction in microbiological contamination of the water line (p < 0.05) was observed on Day 60. While more than 90% of the samples were of satisfactory quality in terms of pH, nitrites, conductivity, nitrates and iron, only 35% were satisfactory in terms of total hardness and only 20% met quality standards for ammonium content. The factors affecting levels of contamination with faecal coliforms were water chlorination (p = 0.065; odds ratio = 14; 90% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-71), cleaning and disinfection (p = 0.028; odds ratio = 14; 95% CI = 1.25-156.6) and antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001; odds ratio = 6; 95% CI = 2.1-35.2). To improve water quality in poultry farms, farmers are advised to protect wells from contamination and to install water purification units (pre-oxidation, coagulation, flocculation, disinfection). In addition, turkey houses and rearing equipment should be rigorously cleaned and disinfected between each batch of birds.

Pub.: 01 Jan '16, Pinned: 30 Oct '17

Microbial Quality of Community Drinking Water supplies: A Ten year (2004-2014) analyses in West Amhara, Ethiopia

Abstract: Access to safe drinking water is an important public health and development issue at national, regional and local levels. Community drinking water supplies such as piped water, dug wells and springs are the predominant sources in rural villages and towns in Ethiopia. A retrospective analysis was conducted on microbial quality of community drinking water sources that had been processed from 2004 –2014. Water samples were collected from 36 districts in West Amhara region. As per standard operational procedures, bacteriological analyses had been performed using multiple tube fermentation technique. A total of 1030 drinking water samples from (tap water n= 680), wells (n=198), spring (n=128) and reservoir (n=24) were analyzed for microbial qualities. Overall, 29.0% (95% CI: 26.3-31.8%) and 44.7% (95% CI: 41.7-47.7%) of water samples had Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC), respectively. Furthermore, 52.0%, 43.0%, and 20.2% of water samples from wells, spring and tap water were positive for E. coli. For faecal coliforms, 72.1% of drinking water supplies complied with World Health Organization and Ethiopian Standards. Tap water samples were 3.8 times less likely to be faecal contaminated than water samples from dug wells and spring water sources (OR=3.8, 95% CI: 2.8-5.1, P=0.001). This ten year trend analyses showed that microbial qualities of community drinking water supplies were not to the standards. This study reinforces the need to monitor microbial quality and chlorine treatment of community water supplies.

Pub.: 14 Jun '16, Pinned: 30 Oct '17

The microbiological quality of potable water on board ships docking in the UK and the Channel Islands: an association of Port Health Authorities and Health Protection Agency Study.

Abstract: Providing safe potable water onboard vessels presents particular challenges and contamination can occur directly from source waters as well as during loading, storage and distribution. Between May and October 2005, 950 potable water samples were collected from 342 ships docking at ports. Comparison with Guidelines found 9% of samples contained coliforms, Escherichia coli or enterococci and 2.8% had faecal indicators (E. coli or enterococci). Action levels of aerobic colony count (ACC) bacteria were detected in 20% (22 degrees C) and 21.5% (37 degrees C) of samples. ACC results from one-off sampling are not informative as this does not enable port health authorities to monitor ACC trends. They should be removed as a routine criterion for remedial action and vessels should adopt the WHO Water Safety Plan approach, whilst continuing to monitor water quality with public health-based indicators (e.g. chlorine residual, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci). Logistic regression analyses identified practices associated with water quality. Practices protective against coliforms, E. coli or enterococci in potable supplies were: good hose hygiene, processing water onboard, maintaining free chlorine residual at >or=0.2 mg/L. This emphasizes the importance of good hygiene during potable water loading and maintaining adequate disinfection of supplies onboard.

Pub.: 23 Jan '08, Pinned: 30 Oct '17