A pinboard by
Roshni Biswas

Undergraduate student majoring in Computer Science engineering with a focus on Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics, Music, Programming, Research


Objective Assessment of Pitch Accuracy in Vocal Music using Signal Processing Approaches

Objective assessment of pitch accuracy in vocal monophonic music using signal processing techniques has been shown in this work. 50 recordings of ‘arohan’ and ‘avarohan’ in 10 Hindustani Classical Ragas were analyzed to quantify the level of variation in pitch by 8 singers who have varied expertise in music. The F0 of the user renditions were estimated using the SWIPE Pitch Detection Algorithm. Each of the note onsets were identified computationally, which permitted proper objective measurement of error. Such an approach is often not accounted for in traditional musicological analysis.

Error in pitch is measured in ‘cents’ which is a unit of the most common tuning system for quantifying intonation in equal tempered music. It was observed that singers with professional training have deviations within 15 - 20 cents, and non-musicians have deviations above 50 cents. The interactive feedback also visually depicts how close the user’s pitch is to what he/she should have sung. Such an evaluation system with a quantitative approach will greatly aid the training process of singers.


Effect of Training and Level of External Auditory Feedback on the Singing Voice: Pitch Inaccuracy.

Abstract: One of the most important aspects of singing is the control of fundamental frequency.The effects on pitch inaccuracy, defined as the distance in cents in equally tempered tuning between the reference note and the sung note, of the following conditions were evaluated: (1) level of external feedback, (2) tempo (slow or fast), (3) articulation (legato or staccato), (4) tessitura (low, medium, or high), and (5) semi-phrase direction (ascending or descending).The subjects were 10 nonprofessional singers and 10 classically trained professional or semi-professional singers (10 men and 10 women). Subjects sang one octave and a fifth arpeggi with three different levels of external auditory feedback, two tempi, and two articulations (legato or staccato).It was observed that inaccuracy was greatest in the descending semi-phrase arpeggi produced at a fast tempo and with a staccato articulation, especially for nonprofessional singers. The magnitude of inaccuracy was also relatively large in the high tessitura relative to the low and the medium tessitura for such singers. Contrary to predictions, when external auditory feedback was strongly attenuated by the hearing protectors, nonprofessional singers showed greater pitch accuracy than in the other external feedback conditions. This finding indicates the importance of internal auditory feedback in pitch control.With an increase in training, the singer's pitch inaccuracy decreases.

Pub.: 08 Mar '16, Pinned: 17 Nov '17