A pinboard by
Nicole Wake

PhD Candidate, New York University School of Medicine


My research uses advances in medical image visualization to guide clinical care.

My research investigates the intersection of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3D printing, augmented reality, and medical practice. I create patient-specific 3D anatomical models from MRI data. 3D models may be 3D printed or viewed in augmented reality and used for patient education, trainee education, pre-surgical planning, and intra-operative guidance. 3D models can help patients and trainees to better understand their disease and surgical options. In addition, 3D models can shift some surgeries to less-invasive options after the 3D models are used for planning. Finally, these patient-specific 3D models can save time in the OR and ultimately improve patient outcomes.


3D printed ventricular septal defect patch: a primer for the 2015 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) hands-on course in 3D printing

Abstract: Hand-held three dimensional models of the human anatomy and pathology, tailored-made protheses, and custom-designed implants can be derived from imaging modalities, most commonly Computed Tomography (CT). However, standard DICOM format images cannot be 3D printed; instead, additional image post-processing is required to transform the anatomy of interest into Standard Tessellation Language (STL) format is needed. This conversion, and the subsequent 3D printing of the STL file, requires a series of steps. Initial post-processing involves the segmentation-demarcation of the desired for 3D printing parts and creating of an initial STL file. Then, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is used, particularly for wrapping, smoothing and trimming. Devices and implants that can also be 3D printed, can be designed using this software environment. The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial on 3D Printing with the test case of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). While the infant was born with double outlet right ventricle (DORV), this hands-on guide to be featured at the 2015 annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America Hands-on Course in 3D Printing focused on the additional finding of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The process of segmenting the heart chambers and the great vessels will be followed by optimization of the model using CAD software. A virtual patch that accurately matches the patient’s VSD will be designed and both models will be prepared for 3D printing.

Pub.: 27 Nov '15, Pinned: 15 Jul '17

Utility and Scope of Rapid Prototyping in Patients with Complex Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects or Double-Outlet Right Ventricle: Does it Alter Management Decisions?

Abstract: Rapid prototyping facilitates comprehension of complex cardiac anatomy. However, determining when this additional information proves instrumental in patient management remains a challenge. We describe our experience with patient-specific anatomic models created using rapid prototyping from various imaging modalities, suggesting their utility in surgical and interventional planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Virtual and physical 3-dimensional (3D) models were generated from CT or MRI data, using commercially available software for patients with complex muscular ventricular septal defects (CMVSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Six patients with complex anatomy and uncertainty of the optimal management strategy were included in this study. The models were subsequently used to guide management decisions, and the outcomes reviewed. 3D models clearly demonstrated the complex intra-cardiac anatomy in all six patients and were utilized to guide management decisions. In the three patients with CMVSD, one underwent successful endovascular device closure following a prior failed attempt at transcatheter closure, and the other two underwent successful primary surgical closure with the aid of 3D models. In all three cases of DORV, the models provided better anatomic delineation and additional information that altered or confirmed the surgical plan. Patient-specific 3D heart models show promise in accurately defining intra-cardiac anatomy in CHD, specifically CMVSD and DORV. We believe these models improve understanding of the complex anatomical spatial relationships in these defects and provide additional insight for pre/intra-interventional management and surgical planning.

Pub.: 12 Nov '16, Pinned: 15 Jul '17

3D printed renal cancer models derived from MRI data: application in pre-surgical planning.

Abstract: To determine whether patient-specific 3D printed renal tumor models change pre-operative planning decisions made by urological surgeons in preparation for complex renal mass surgical procedures.From our ongoing IRB approved study on renal neoplasms, ten renal mass cases were retrospectively selected based on Nephrometry Score greater than 5 (range 6-10). A 3D post-contrast fat-suppressed gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence was used to generate 3D printed models. The cases were evaluated by three experienced urologic oncology surgeons in a randomized fashion using (1) imaging data on PACS alone and (2) 3D printed model in addition to the imaging data. A questionnaire regarding surgical approach and planning was administered. The presumed pre-operative approaches with and without the model were compared. Any change between the presumed approaches and the actual surgical intervention was recorded.There was a change in planned approach with the 3D printed model for all ten cases with the largest impact seen regarding decisions on transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach and clamping, with changes seen in 30%-50% of cases. Mean parenchymal volume loss for the operated kidney was 21.4%. Volume losses >20% were associated with increased ischemia times and surgeons tended to report a different approach with the use of the 3D model compared to that with imaging alone in these cases. The 3D printed models helped increase confidence regarding the chosen operative procedure in all cases.Pre-operative physical 3D models created from MRI data may influence surgical planning for complex kidney cancer.

Pub.: 08 Jan '17, Pinned: 15 Jul '17