Research Scholar , Department of Chemistry, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, CSJM University, Kanpur 208024
To design a non toxic peptidomimitic drug to treat HIV and internal fungal infection
Antifungal agents are of great importance from different perspectives. Prime usage in human as a medication to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete’s foot, candidiasis, serious systematic infections like cryptococcal meningitis, etc. Antifungal agents come in different preparations as creams, sprays, shampoos, pessaries, oral tablets etc.Terbinafine, fluconazole and few more can be orally taken to treat fungal infections within the body. Only in case of serious fungal infection antifungals like amphotericin, itraconazole, etc. are injected intramuscular or intravenous. Topical preparations of antifungal agents usually cause no side effects. Few common side effects of oral antifungals are nausea, headache, diarrhea. The antifungals given through injection cause serious problems and are administered only when the need for treatment outweighs their risk (R. Omar, S. Sharma and A. Yadav, WJPPS, 5(9): 591, 2016). People with poor immune system, for example, people undergoing chemotherapy or treatment for HIV/AIDS are constantly at risk of developing internal fungal infection and are thus regularly prescribed antifungal medications. Several classes of antifungal agents have been developed to combat ever increasing cases of resistant strains of fungi. Azoles, despite being the most popular clinical choice, are not devoid of side effects. Many antimicrobial peptides have also been tested in search of safe, nontoxic antifungals but none succeeded as a commercial alternative. Recent research attempts show continued interest in these compounds and the complexities associated. Some experimental observations indicate involvement of these antimicrobial peptides in enhancing the efficacy of anti-HIV agents. I have studied an intertwined approach to deal with two fatal diseases, internal fungal infection and HIV infection. Several naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides have been studied for their possible interaction with the viral RNA primer binding site (template) through interactions other than the base pair – base pair type. Peptides have been prepared and docked into viral template utilizing extra precision, flexible ligand docking. Implicit solvent was added around the complex and MMGBSA interaction energies were computed. Druggability aspects were explored by calculating ADME-related properties. The designed peptidomimetic lead compound may help in obtaining nontoxic anti-HIV agents in the future ( R. Omar, A. Yadav, Can. J. Chem., 95(6): 633, 2017).
Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides in the skin secretions of anurans constitute a component of the innate immunity that protects the organism against invading pathogens. Four peptides with antimicrobial activity were isolated in high yield from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora and their primary structures determined. Ranatuerin-2AUa (GILSSFKGVAKGVAKNLAGKLLDELKCKITGC) showed potent growth-inhibitory activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentrations < 20 microM) but low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (50% hemolysis at 290 microM). Brevinin-1AUa (FLPILAGLAAKLVPKVFCSITKKC) and brevinin-1AUb (FLPILAGLAANILPKVFCSITKKC) also showed potent antimicrobial activity but were strongly hemolytic (HC50 < 10 microM). Temporin-1AUa (FLPIIGQLLSGLL.NH2) atypically lacked a basic amino acid residue and showed very weak antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Its biological function remains to be established. The primary structures of the antimicrobial peptides are consistent with a close phylogenetic relationship between R. aurora, Rana boylii and Rana luteiventris.
Pub.: 25 Aug '04, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Six antimicrobial peptides designated dybowskins were isolated from the skin secretion of Rana dybowskii, an edible frog in Korea. Dybowskin-1 (FLIGMTHGLICLISRKC) and dybowskin-2 (FLIGMTQGLICLITRKC) were isoforms differing in only two amino acid residues at the 7th and 14th positions from the N-terminus, and they showed amino acid sequence similarities with ranalexin peptides. Dybowskin-3 (GLFDVVKGVLKGVGKNVAGSLLEQLKCKLSGGC), dybowskin-4 (VWPLGLVICKALKIC), dybowskin-5 (GLFSVVTGVLKAVGKNVAKNVGGSLLEQLKCKISGGC), and dybowskin-6 (FLPLLLAGLPLKLCFLFKKC) differed in both size and sequence, and they were, in terms of amino acid sequence similarities, related to brevinin-2, japonicin-2, esculentin-2, and brevinin-1 peptides, respectively. All the peptides presented in this paper contained Rana-box, the cyclic heptapeptide domain, which is conserved in other antimicrobial peptides derived from the genus Rana. All the dybowskin peptides showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC), 12.5 to >100 microg/ml) and against Candida albicans (MIC, 25 to >100 microg/ml). Especially, dybowskin-4 with valine at its N-terminus was the most abundant and showed the strongest antimicrobial activity among all the dybowskin peptides. This result indicates that the dybowskin peptides from R. dybowskii, whose main habitats are mountains or forests, have evolved differently from antimicrobial peptides isolated from other Korean frogs, whose habitats are plain fields.
Pub.: 21 Aug '07, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: So far numerous antimicrobial peptides have been characterized from amphibians. In this work, a new family of antimicrobial peptides, named shuchin, was purified and characterized from skin secretions of the frog, Rana shuchinae that lives in freezing mountains. Totally two members of shuchin (shuchin 1 and 2) were identified with the amino acid sequence of NALSMPRNKCNRALMCFG and NALSSPRNKCDRASSCFG, respectively. cDNAs encoding shuchins were cloned from the skin cDNA library of R. shuchinae. The precursors of shuchin are composed of 62 amino acid residues including the conserved signal peptides, acidic propieces, and mature antimicrobial peptides. Synthetic shuchins showed strong and broad antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus; MICs<12.5 microg/ml), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; most MICs from 3.1 to 12.5 microg/ml), and yeast (Candida albicans; MICs of 6.25 microg/ml), but no hemolytic activity under the effective concentration, thereby provide more leading templates for designing novel anti-infection agents.
Pub.: 18 Jun '10, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Recently, we designed a novel cell-selective antimicrobial peptide (TPk) with intracellular mode of action from Pro --> Nlys (Lys peptoid residue) substitution in a noncell-selective cathelicidin-derived Trp/Pro-rich antimicrobial peptide, tritrpticin-amide (TP; VRRFPWWWPFLRR-NH(2)) (Biochemistry 2006; 45: 13007-13017). In this study, to elucidate the effect of Pro --> Nlys substitution on therapeutic index and mode of action of other noncell-selective cathelicidin-derived Trp/Pro-rich antimicrobial peptides and develop novel short antimicrobial peptides with high cell selectivity/therapeutic index, we synthesized Nlys-substituted antimicrobial peptides, TPk, STPk and INk, in which all proline residues of TP, symmetric TP-analogue (STP; KKFPWWWPFKK-NH(2)) and indolicidin (IN; ILPWKWPWWPWRR-NH(2)) were replaced by Nlys, respectively. Compared to parent Pro-containing peptides (TP, STP and IN), Nlys substituted peptides (TPk, STPk and Ink) had 4- to 26-fold higher cell selectivity/therapeutic index. Parent Pro-containing peptides induced a significant depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane of intact Staphylococcus aureus at their MIC, whereas Nlys-substituted antimicrobial peptides did not cause visible membrane depolarization at their MIC. These results suggest that the antibacterial action of Nlys-substituted peptides is probably not due to the disruption of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes but the inhibition of intracellular components. Taken together, our results showed that Pro --> Nlys substitution in other noncell-selective Trp/Pro-rich antimicrobial peptides such as STP and IN as well as TP can improve the cell selectivity/therapeutic index and change the mode of antibacterial action from membrane-disrupting to intracellular targeting. In conclusion, our findings suggested that Pro --> Nlys substitution in noncell-selective Trp/Pro-rich antimicrobial peptides is a promising method to develop cell-selective antimicrobial peptides with intracellular target mechanism.
Pub.: 03 Jul '07, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: Pep-1-K (PK) is a good cell-selective antimicrobial peptide designed from cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1. To develop novel short antimicrobial peptides with higher cell selectivity and shorter length compared with PK, several PK analogs were designed by the deletion, addition and/or substitution of amino acids. Among these analogs, PK-12-KKP (KKPWWKPWWPKWKK) showing the sequence and structure homology with a Trp/Pro-rich natural antimicrobial peptide, indolicidin (IN), displayed a 20-fold higher cell selectivity as compared to IN. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that PK-12-KKP adopts a folded structure combined with some portions of unordered structure. PK-12-KKP selectively binds to negatively charged bacterial membrane-mimetic vesicles, and its high phospholipid selectivity corresponds well with its high cell selectivity. Moreover, it showed very weak potential in depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane of Staphylococcus aureus at 8 microM (4x minimal inhibitory concentration) and dye leakage from negatively charged liposomes. These results suggest that the ultimate target of our designed PK-12-KKP maybe the intracellular components (e.g. protein, DNA or RNA) rather than the cytoplasmic membranes. Collectively, our designed short Trp/Pro-rich peptide, PK-12-KKP, appears to be an excellent candidate for future development as a novel antimicrobial agent.
Pub.: 21 May '09, Pinned: 03 Jul '17
Abstract: The introduction of new antifungal agents (eg, echinocandins, second-generation triazoles) in the past decade has transformed the management of invasive mycoses to the point that drug toxicity is no longer the major limiting factor in treatment. Yet, many of these newer antifungal agents have important limitations in their spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, and unique predisposition for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions and unusual toxicities associated with long-term use. This article reviews key pharmacological aspects of systemic antifungal agents as well as evolving strategies, such as pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic optimization and therapeutic drug monitoring, to improve the safety and efficacy of systemic antifungal therapy.
Pub.: 02 Aug '11, Pinned: 03 Jul '17