I took a university exam about antibiotics while on penicillin, and they've fascinated me ever since
How can parents help combat the growing and urgent problem of antibiotic resistance?
From Western countries with advanced healthcare systems to developing rural communities, the rates of antibiotic resistance are increasing around the world, posing a significant threat to public health.
Children and the elderly are especially prone to succumbing to antibiotic-resistance infections, and even healthy children can represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistant pathogens within a community, putting more vulnerable people around them at risk. What can parents do to protect their children from antibiotic resistant infections and ensure that they are not contributing to the problem?
A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that high antibiotic resistance correlates with high rates of antibiotic consumption; a first-line strategy is therefore to reduce antibiotic use to prevent resistance from developing.
Several vaccines are available against resistance-prone pathogens, and these can substantially reduce the burden of infection.
Behaviours to avoid include acquiring antibiotics without prescription (including at pharmacies), not completing (or allowing your child not to complete) a prescribed course of antibiotics, storing old antibiotics, or sharing these medicines with friends and family. Worryingly, these practices remain prevalent in communities around the world, with a Jordanian study finding older, better educated and wealthier people more likely to self-medicate with antibiotics. Parents in particular can be guilty of pressuring paediatricians to prescribe antibiotics for their ill children.
With a post-antibiotic era looming, better antimicrobial stewardship is the leading strategy to slow down the emergence of resistant pathogens.
Abstract: Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers.To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections.In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff.Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene.This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer.
Pub.: 03 Jun '17, Pinned: 04 Jun '17
Abstract: Community-acquired infections, including respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs), represent a major burden for most healthcare systems, partially due to ineffective or inappropriate antibiotic treatment leading to clinical failure, which often requires alternative antibiotics for cure. Appropriate antimicrobial use not only maximises clinical success in the treatment of community-acquired infections, but also minimises unintended consequences such as resistance development or collateral damage. This article outlines a range of antibiotic stewardship strategies and other preventative approaches that support the management of community-acquired infections, based on existing antibiotic use for community-acquired infections and the current resistance patterns among common RTI and UTI pathogens.
Pub.: 01 Dec '14, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Background Irregular antibiotic use, including self-medication contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. One method of accessing antibiotic use in the community is through obtaining an in house inventory of drugs. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of storage and self-medication with antibiotics agents in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. Setting Households in Novi Sad. Method The study was performed during a 4-month period (October 2015-January 2016) using a sample of 112 households in Novi Sad, Serbia. Two trained interviewers performed the survey by visiting each household. The study consisted of making an inventory of all drugs in household and a semi-structured interview about drug use practices and perceptions. Main outcome measure Number of antibiotics obtained without prescription. Results Out of 112 surveyed households, antibiotics were encountered in 55 (49.1%). Antibiotics constituted 11.98% (92/768) of total number of drug items in households. Out of all antibiotics in households, 41 (44.57%) were not in current use, and presented left-overs from previous treatment. Antibiotics were usually acquired with prescription (67, 67.7%), while about a quarter of packages were used for self-medication-purchased at pharmacy without prescription (19, 20.65%) or obtained through friends or family member (6, 6.52%).The most commonly used antibiotics for self-medication was amoxicillin (reported indications included common cold, cough, pharyngitis and tooth-ache). Conclusion Antibiotics were present in large share of households in Novi Sad. Self-medication with antibiotics and sale of antibiotics without prescription represent an important problem in Serbia.
Pub.: 10 Apr '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: Greater use of antibiotics during the past 50 years has exerted selective pressure on susceptible bacteria and may have favoured the survival of resistant strains. Existing information on antibiotic resistance patterns from pathogens circulating among community-based patients is substantially less than from hospitalized patients on whom guidelines are often based. We therefore chose to assess the relationship between the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria circulating in the community and the consumption of antibiotics in the community.Both gray literature and published scientific literature in English and other European languages was examined. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse whether studies found a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis and meta-regression was conducted for studies for which a common effect size measure (odds ratio) could be calculated.Electronic searches identified 974 studies but only 243 studies were considered eligible for inclusion by the two independent reviewers who extracted the data. A binomial test revealed a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance (p < .001) but multiple regression modelling did not produce any significant predictors of study outcome. The meta-analysis generated a significant pooled odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 2.5) with a meta-regression producing several significant predictors (F(10,77) = 5.82, p < .01). Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other regions.Using a large set of studies we found that antibiotic consumption is associated with the development of antibiotic resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis, with a subsample of the studies, generated several significant predictors. Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other regions so efforts at reducing antibiotic consumption may need to be strengthened in this area. Increased consumption of antibiotics may not only produce greater resistance at the individual patient level but may also produce greater resistance at the community, country, and regional levels, which can harm individual patients.
Pub.: 11 Jan '14, Pinned: 11 Apr '17
Abstract: A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Jordan and evaluate the factors associated with antibiotic misuse.Validated questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 1943 households (9281 persons) selected from among different cities in Jordan.842 (39.5%) of 2133 antibiotic users identified via the survey had used antibiotics without a prescription within a one-month study period. Self-medication with antibiotics was found to be significantly associated with age, income, and level of education. The main reason for self-medication as reported by the participants was their previous experience on the efficacy of treatment. The main sources of antibiotics were the previously prescribed pharmaceuticals stored in the household and those purchased in pharmacies.The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Jordan is alarmingly high. Given the growing global resistance to antibiotics and the documented health problems related to their inappropriate use, our findings may have major public health policy implications in Jordan.
Pub.: 01 Jan '08, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance has been referred to as 'the greatest malice of the 21st century' and a global action plan was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2015. There is a wealth of independent studies regarding antibiotics and resistant bacteria in humans, animals and their environment, however, integrated studies are lacking, particularly ones that simultaneously also take into consideration the health related behaviour of participants and healthcare providers. Such, 'One health' studies are difficult to implement, because of the complex teamwork that they entail. This paper describes the protocol of a study that investigates 'One health' issues regarding antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in children and their environment in Indian villages.Both quantitative and qualitative studies are planned for a cohort of children, from 6 villages, and their surrounding environment. Repeated or continues data collection is planned over 2 years for quantitative studies. Qualitative studies will be conducted once. Studies include parents' health seeking behavior for their children (1-3 years of age at the onset), prescribing pattern of formal and informal healthcare providers, analysis of phenotypic antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from samples of stool from children and village animals, household drinking water, village source water and waste water, and investigation on molecular mechanisms governing resistance. Analysis of interrelationship of these with each other will also be done as basis for future interventions. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No: 2013/07/17-311).The findings of the study presented in this protocol will add to our knowledge about the multi-factorial nature of causes governing antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance from a 'One health' perspective. Our study will be the first of its kind addressing antibiotic use and resistance issues related to children in a One-health approach, particularly for rural India.
Pub.: 31 Dec '15, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Microbiology and susceptibility of middle ear pathogens in children change over time and antibiotic resistance is increasing globally. For the clinicians it is important to be up to date about the resistance situation when considering antibiotic treatment in acute otitis media (AOM). In this study we analysed the resistance profile of AOM pathogens in out-patient children in Finland.A total of 41 culture positive middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were analysed for bacteria and the presence of antibiotic resistant strains. The samples were obtained from children aged six - 39 months who participated in the otitis media trial during one year period.The most common pathogen was Haemophilus influenzae 17 (40%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae in 15 (35%) and Moraxella catarrhalis in 8 (19%). Other pathogens were detected in 3 (7%) of cases. Antibiotic resistance or diminished sensitivity was seen in 63% of the detected bacteria and 28% of pathogens produced beta-lactamase.Antibiotic resistant bacterial strains causing AOM have increased in Finland. Nevertheless, most of the pathogens (72%) were sensitive to amoxicillin, which is still recommended as the first line antibiotic in the treatment of AOM.
Pub.: 01 Jun '16, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an escalating grim menace to global public health. Our aim is to phenotype and genotype antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from humans, animals, and water from the same community with a 'one-health' approach. The samples were collected from a village belonging to demographic surveillance site of Ruxmaniben Deepchand (R.D.) Gardi Medical College Ujjain, Central India. Commensal coliforms from stool samples from children aged 1-3 years and their environment (animals, drinking water from children's households, common source- and waste-water) were studied for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid-encoded resistance genes. E. coli isolates from human (n = 127), animal (n = 21), waste- (n = 12), source- (n = 10), and household drinking water (n = 122) carried 70%, 29%, 41%, 30%, and 30% multi-drug resistance, respectively. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were 57% in human and 23% in environmental isolates. Co-resistance was frequent in penicillin, cephalosporin, and quinolone. Antibiotic-resistance genes blaCTX-M-9 and qnrS were most frequent. Group D-type isolates with resistance genes were mainly from humans and wastewater. Colistin resistance, or the mcr-1 gene, was not detected. The frequency of resistance, co-resistance, and resistant genes are high and similar in coliforms from humans and their environment. This emphasizes the need to mitigate antibiotic resistance with a 'one-health' approach.
Pub.: 07 Apr '17, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Previously, web-based tools for cross-sectional antimicrobial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) have been used in adults to develop indicators of quality improvement. We aimed to determine the feasibility of developing similar quality indicators of improved antimicrobial prescribing focusing specifically on hospitalized neonates and children worldwide.A standardized antimicrobial PPS method was employed. Included were all inpatient children and neonates receiving an antimicrobial at 8:00 am on the day of the PPS. Denominators included the total number of inpatients. A web-based application was used for data entry, validation and reporting. We analysed 2012 data from 226 hospitals (H) in 41 countries (C) from Europe (174H; 24C), Africa (6H; 4C), Asia (25H; 8C), Australia (6H), Latin America (11H; 3C) and North America (4H).Of 17 693 admissions, 6499 (36.7%) inpatients received at least one antimicrobial, but this varied considerably between wards and regions. Potential indicators included very high broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing in children of mainly ceftriaxone (ranked first in Eastern Europe, 31.3%; Asia, 13.0%; Southern Europe, 9.8%), cefepime (ranked third in North America, 7.8%) and meropenem (ranked first in Latin America, 13.1%). The survey identified worryingly high use of critically important antibiotics for hospital-acquired infections in neonates (34.9%; range from 14.2% in Africa to 68.0% in Latin America) compared with children (28.3%; range from 14.5% in Africa to 48.9% in Latin America). Parenteral administration was very common among children in Asia (88%), Latin America (81%) and Europe (67%). Documentation of the reasons for antibiotic prescribing was lowest in Latin America (52%). Prolonged surgical prophylaxis rates ranged from 78% (Europe) to 84% (Latin America).Simple web-based PPS tools provide a feasible method to identify areas for improvement of antibiotic use, to set benchmarks and to monitor future interventions in hospitalized neonates and children. To our knowledge, this study has derived the first global quality indicators for antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children.
Pub.: 10 Jan '16, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic streptococcus (BHS) was generally associated with transmissible genetic elements. The objectives of this study were to investigate carriage rate, antibiotic resistance and related mobile genetic elements of pneumococci and BHS from school-children. The pneumococci and BHS were recovered from 220 Thai school-children, and then tested for antibiotic susceptibility pattern by disc diffusion. Antibiotic resistance genes and related genetic elements were detected by PCR with specific primers. A total of 77 pneumococcal isolates were resistant to erythromycin (42 %), tetracycline (44 %), clindamycin (8 %), or penicillin (3 %). Fifty-four BHS isolates were resistant to erythromycin (28 %), tetracycline (52 %), or clindamycin (13 %). All isolates tested were 100 % sensitive to penicillin and levofloxacin. Among erythromycin-resistant streptococcal isolates showed different phenotypes of clindamycin resistance. It was found that isolated pneumococci showed constitutive clindamycin resistance (19 %), and inducible clindamycin resistance (12 %). The BHS isolates exhibited constitutive clindamycin resistance (40 %), and inducible resistance (20 %) phenotypes. The predominant erythromycin resistance genes in pneumococci and BHS were mefE and ermB, while the most common tetracycline resistance gene in this population was tetM. Furthermore, almost all erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistant streptococci (97 %) mainly contained various genetic elements, including mega elements and six different transposon types (Tn2009, Tn2017, Tn917, Tn3872, Tn6002 and Tn916). Therefore, carriages of pneumococci and BHS with multidrug resistance in children might be important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes carried by transposons. Tn916-like elements could lead to dissemination of the antibiotic resistance genes among genus streptococcus in human oral cavity and nasopharynx. Transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic streptococcus (BHS) was generally associated with transmissible genetic elements. The objectives of this study were to investigate carriage rate, antibiotic resistance and related mobile genetic elements of pneumococci and BHS from school-children. The pneumococci and BHS were recovered from 220 Thai school-children, and then tested for antibiotic susceptibility pattern by disc diffusion. Antibiotic resistance genes and related genetic elements were detected by PCR with specific primers. A total of 77 pneumococcal isolates were resistant to erythromycin (42 %), tetracycline (44 %), clindamycin (8 %), or penicillin (3 %). Fifty-four BHS isolates were resistant to erythromycin (28 %), tetracycline (52 %), or clindamycin (13 %). All isolates tested were 100 % sensitive to penicillin and levofloxacin. Among erythromycin-resistant streptococcal isolates showed different phenotypes of clindamycin resistance. It was found that isolated pneumococci showed constitutive clindamycin resistance (19 %), and inducible clindamycin resistance (12 %). The BHS isolates exhibited constitutive clindamycin resistance (40 %), and inducible resistance (20 %) phenotypes. The predominant erythromycin resistance genes in pneumococci and BHS were mefE and ermB, while the most common tetracycline resistance gene in this population was tetM. Furthermore, almost all erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistant streptococci (97 %) mainly contained various genetic elements, including mega elements and six different transposon types (Tn2009, Tn2017, Tn917, Tn3872, Tn6002 and Tn916). Therefore, carriages of pneumococci and BHS with multidrug resistance in children might be important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes carried by transposons. Tn916-like elements could lead to dissemination of the antibiotic resistance genes among genus streptococcus in human oral cavity and nasopharynx.Streptococcus pneumoniaemefermtet2009201791738726002916916
Pub.: 01 Dec '16, Pinned: 12 Apr '17
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa promotes its survival and persistence in various environments and particularly at different stages of pathogenesis. We will review the importance and complexity of regulatory networks and genotypic-phenotypic variations known as adaptive radiation by which P. aeruginosa adjusts physiological processes for adaptation and survival in response to environmental cues and stresses. Accordingly, we will review the central regulatory role of quorum sensing and signaling systems by nucleotide-based second messengers resulting in different lifestyles of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, various regulatory proteins will be discussed which form a plethora of controlling systems acting at transcriptional level for timely expression of genes enabling rapid responses to external stimuli and unfavorable conditions. Antibiotic resistance is a natural trait for P. aeruginosa and multiple mechanisms underlying different forms of antibiotic resistance will be discussed here. The importance of each mechanism in conferring resistance to various antipseudomonal antibiotics and their prevalence in clinical strains will be described. The underlying principles for acquiring resistance leading pan-drug resistant strains will be summarized. A future outlook emphasizes the need for collaborative international multidisciplinary efforts to translate current knowledge into strategies to prevent and treat P. aeruginosa infections while reducing the rate of antibiotic resistance and avoiding the spreading of resistant strains.
Pub.: 07 Mar '17, Pinned: 11 Apr '17