Post Doctoral Fellow, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
An essentail cell cycle-dependent and semi-conservative ORC ‘dimerization cycle was uncovered
Eukaryotic DNA replication licensing, a prerequisite for genome duplication, plays a critical role to ensure that all chromosomal DNA is replicated exactly once per cell cycle. It involves the recruitment of replication-initiation proteins by origin recognition complex (ORC) to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at replication origins. ORC binds to and marks replication origins throughout the cell cycle. However, the regulation of ORC in replication licensing has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that ORC self-interacts and dimerizes (forming a double heterohexamer) before pre-RC formation in budding yeast. Upon S phase entry, each double hexamer ORC separates into two single hexamers to bind each pair of nascent origins until late M phase. The non-chromatin-bound ORC then associates with the chromatin-bound ORC to reform double hexamers at the M-to-G1 transition. Preventing ORC dimerization by depleting non-chromatin bound ORC proteins in M phase, or by Orc6p point mutations that disrupt ORC self-interaction but can maintain ORC inter-subunit interactions, abolishes pre-RC formation, DNA replication and cell proliferation and viability. Similarly, human ORC also self interacts. Moreover, hORC co-localizes on stretched human chromatin fiber bundles in a cell cycle dependent manner: occurs in G1 phase but not in G2/M phase. Our findings uncovered an essential, cell cycle-dependent and semi-conservative ORC ‘dimerization cycle’ that plays three fundamental roles in the regulation of DNA replication: providing a symmetric platform to load the symmetric pre-RCs, marking and protecting the nascent sister replication origins until the next licensing, and providing the first guard against origin re-licensing within the same cell cycle.
Abstract: Several replication-initiation proteins are assembled stepwise onto replicators to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) to license eukaryotic DNA replication. We performed a yeast functional proteomic screen and identified the Rix1 complex members (Ipi1p-Ipi2p/Rix1-Ipi3p) as pre-RC components and critical determinants of replication licensing and replication-initiation frequency. Ipi3p interacts with pre-RC proteins, binds chromatin predominantly at ARS sequences in a cell cycle-regulated and ORC- and Noc3p-dependent manner and is required for loading Cdc6p, Cdt1p and MCM onto chromatin to form pre-RC during the M-to-G₁ transition and for pre-RC maintenance in G₁ phase-independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis. Moreover, Ipi1p and Ipi2p, but not other ribosome biogenesis proteins Rea1p and Utp1p, are also required for pre-RC formation and maintenance, and Ipi1p, -2p and -3p are interdependent for their chromatin association and function in pre-RC formation. These results establish a new framework for the hierarchy of pre-RC proteins, where the Ipi1p-2p-3p complex provides a critical link between ORC-Noc3p and Cdc6p-Cdt1p-MCM in replication licensing.
Pub.: 17 Mar '12, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: The yeast Ipi3p is required for DNA replication and cell viability in Sacharomyces cerevisiae. It is an essential component of the Rix1 complex (Rix1p/Ipi2p-Ipi1p-Ipi3p) that is required for the processing of 35S pre-rRNA in pre-60S ribosomal particles and for the initiation of DNA replication. The human IPI3 homolog is WDR18 (WD repeat domain 18), which shares significant homology with yIpi3p. Here we report that knockdown of hIPI3 resulted in substantial defects in the chromatin association of the MCM complex, DNA replication, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Importantly, hIPI3 silencing did not result in a reduction of the protein level of hCDC6, hMCM7, or the ectopically expressed GFP protein, indicating that protein synthesis was not defective in the same time frame of the DNA replication and cell cycle defects. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of hIPI3 fluctuate in the cell cycle, with the highest levels from M phase to early G1 phase, similar to other pre-replicative (pre-RC) proteins. Moreover, hIPI3 interacts with other replication-initiation proteins, co-localizes with hMCM7 in the nucleus, and is important for the nuclear localization of hMCM7. We also found that hIPI3 preferentially binds to the origins of DNA replication including those at the c-Myc, Lamin-B2 and β-Globin loci. These results indicate that hIPI3 is involved in human DNA replication licensing independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis.
Pub.: 09 Apr '16, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: The opening and closing of two ring-shaped Mcm2-7 DNA helicases is necessary to license eukaryotic origins of replication, although the mechanisms controlling these events are unclear. The origin-recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6 and Cdt1 facilitate this process by establishing a topological link between each Mcm2-7 hexamer and origin DNA. Using colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we monitored ring opening and closing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm2-7 during origin licensing. The two Mcm2-7 rings were open during initial DNA association and closed sequentially, concomitant with the release of their associated Cdt1. We observed that ATP hydrolysis by Mcm2-7 was coupled to ring closure and Cdt1 release, and failure to load the first Mcm2-7 prevented recruitment of the second Mcm2-7. Our findings identify key mechanisms controlling the Mcm2-7 DNA-entry gate during origin licensing, and reveal that the two Mcm2-7 complexes are loaded via a coordinated series of events with implications for bidirectional replication initiation and quality control.
Pub.: 14 Feb '17, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: Bidirectional replication from eukaryotic DNA replication origins requires the loading of two ring-shaped minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicases around DNA in opposite orientations. MCM loading is orchestrated by binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC) to DNA, but how ORC coordinates symmetrical MCM loading is unclear. We used natural budding yeast DNA replication origins and synthetic DNA sequences to show that efficient MCM loading requires binding of two ORC molecules to two ORC binding sites. The relative orientation of these sites, but not the distance between them, was found to be critical for MCM loading in vitro and origin function in vivo. We propose that quasi-symmetrical loading of individual MCM hexamers by ORC and directed MCM translocation into double hexamers acts as a unifying mechanism for the establishment of bidirectional replication in archaea and eukaryotes.
Pub.: 22 Jul '17, Pinned: 28 Jul '17
Abstract: In the quest to define autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) in eukaryotic cells, an ARS consensus sequence (ACS) has emerged for budding yeast. This ACS is recognized by the replication initiator, the origin recognition complex (ORC). However, not every match to the ACS constitutes a replication origin. Here, we investigated the requirements for ORC binding to origins that carry multiple, redundant ACSs, such as ARS603. Previous studies raised the possibility that these ACSs function as individual ORC binding sites. Detailed mutational analysis of the two ACSs in ARS603 revealed that they function in concert and give rise to an initiation pattern compatible with a single bipartite ORC binding site. Consistent with this notion, deletion of one base pair between the ACS matches abolished ORC binding at ARS603. Importantly, loss of ORC binding in vitro correlated with the loss of ARS activity in vivo. Our results argue that replication origins in yeast are in general comprised of bipartite ORC binding sites that cannot function in random alignment but must conform to a configuration that permits ORC binding. These requirements help to explain why only a limited number of ACS matches in the yeast genome qualify as ORC binding sites.
Pub.: 21 Sep '06, Pinned: 28 Jul '17