PhD student, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
Environmental and occupational exposure to cadmium has been reported to have an effect on the kidney. This present study was conducted to investigate the ameliorative effect of Emilia sonchifolia on cadmium induced renal damage and to suggest the use of the plant extract for the treatment of various ailments associated with cadmium exposure and in a long run developed safe drugs from the plant extract. In the course of the experiment, various parameters like serum electrolytes, full blood count, enzymes activity of the kidneys, kidney histology and morphology were investigated to determine the effect of the plant extract on renal damage resulting from cadmium exposure .
Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium. Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay). The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG₂ cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG₂ cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells.
Pub.: 06 Jan '16, Pinned: 01 Sep '17
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn) or vitamin E (Vit-E) on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) (n = 6) control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E groups. The experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight) alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each) or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight) supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidase (LPx) were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and band densities were quantified. These results showed that Cd exposure led to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.
Pub.: 29 Jul '16, Pinned: 01 Sep '17
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is widespread and nephrotoxic, but the mechanism of its toxicity is not well understood. Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has a protective effect on Cd-induced oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanism is also not clear. This study aimed to confirm that Cd causes renal damage and to explore the potential underlying mechanism of α-LA to the kidney. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, Cd group (50 mg/L CdAc2), Cd+α-LA group (50 mg/L CdAc2 + 50 mg/kg body wt/day α-LA), and α-LA group (50 mg/kg body wt/day). The rats were exposed to Cd via drinking water and α-LA in the form of gavage at the same time every day. After 12 weeks, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of Cd in the kidney were analyzed. Renal damage was evaluated based on histopathological and ultrastructure examinations. The apoptosis index was determined based on the results of western blotting and qRT-PCR. Our results indicate that accumulation of Cd causes serious kidney damage and α-LA has a protective effect against Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Further, the findings indicate that the antioxidant, Cd chelation, and antiapoptotic activities of α-LA are the key factors that alleviate nephrotoxicity.
Pub.: 01 Nov '16, Pinned: 01 Sep '17
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