Assistant Lecturer, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike Nigeria
This is a social science research, to obtain information on climate change from rural dwellers.
Ohafia majorly sustains agriculture in Abia State Nigeria, because its forest area is significantly high, yet, the inhabitants of the region are almost left with nothing as a result of climate variability impact. It experiences flooding, irregular rainfall, increased temperatures, decline in soil productivity, severe windstorms, increased plant and animal diseases. This study examines adaptation measures which the rural dwellers use for coping with climate variability. A stratified-simple random technique was used to select 9 villages out of the 26 villages in Ohafia, the strata formed 3 villages each from urban, semi-urban and rural locations, to ensure a representative picture of peoples’ views. A total of two hundred and sixteen households were interviewed using a well structured questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings are that large respondents (88%) farmed based on rainfall pattern; while 88% avoided the application of chemicals and inorganic fertilizers. Others (77.8%) prayed to God to revert climate change and (77.3%) diversified the planting of agricultural crops. Others (38.9%) made use of compost fertility, (26.4%) reduced bush burning, (40.7%) embarked on rain water harvesting, (47.2%) mulched around crops to avoid transpiration due to excessive heat while (42.1%) planted trees around their compounds to check CO2 emissions. About 91% believe that the collaboration of their government and some developed countries are necessary in adaptation to climate variability impact in their communities. Cash donations, trainings, government and foreign countries’ partnership will be of great help towards coping with climate variability impact in their communities.
Abstract: Climate and anthropogenic changes are expected to reduce renewable groundwater resources and to increase the risks of water scarcity, particularly in arid regions. Understanding current and future risks of water scarcity is vital to make the right water management decision at the right time. This study aims to analyze the impact of both human and climate pressures on groundwater availability in an arid environment: the Regueb basin in Central Tunisia. An integrated approach was used and applied at a monthly time step over a reference period (1976–2005) and a future period (2036–2065). Groundwater resources were assessed using hydrogeological modeling. Irrigation water withdrawals were evaluated based on remote sensing and the CropWat model. Urban water use was estimated from population growth and specific monthly water consumption data. The resulting values were used to compute two indicators (water stress index, groundwater balance) to evaluate water scarcity risks at the 2050 horizon. To assess current and future climate forcing on water resources, three climate scenarios were generated based on simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data. A business-as-usual and an adaptation scenario (optimal cropping scenario) were performed by varying the surface areas and the crops grown in the irrigated area. Results show that the average annual water use will increase by 3.8 to 16.4% under climate change only, whereas it will increase by 100% under the business-as-usual scenario. Under the optimal cropping scenario, total water demand will increase by 50%. Water stress index indicates that under the climate change only scenario, water demand should be satisfied by the 2050 horizon, while under the other two scenarios, severe water stress will occur by 2050. The developed framework in this paper aims to fit in arid and semiarid regions in order to evaluate groundwater stress and to assess the efficiency of adaptation strategies. It results in two major recommendations regarding changes in land use and the improvement of groundwater monitoring.
Pub.: 10 Mar '18, Pinned: 16 Mar '18
Abstract: A national biodiversity and climate change adaptation plan is being developed for Ireland by the Department of Communications, Climate Action, and Environment. In order to inform such a plan, it was necessary to review and synthesize some of the recent literature pertaining to the impact of climate change on biodiversity in Ireland. Published research on this topic fell within three broad categories: (i) changes in the timing of life-cycle events (phenology) of plants, birds, and insects; (ii) changes in the geographic range of some bird species; and (iii) changes in the suitable climatic zones of key habitats and species. The synthesis revealed evidence of (i) a trend towards earlier spring activity of plants, birds, and insects which may result in a change in ecosystem function; (ii) an increase in the number of bird species; and (iii) both increases and decreases in the suitable climatic area of key habitats and species, all of which are expected to impact Ireland's future biodiversity. This process identified data gaps and limitations in available information both of which could be used to inform a focused research strategy. In addition, it raises awareness of the potential implications of climate change for biodiversity in Ireland and elsewhere and demonstrates the need for biodiversity conservation plans to factor climate change into future designs.
Pub.: 14 Mar '18, Pinned: 16 Mar '18
Abstract: This paper provides one of the first empirical studies that examine the impact of climate change adaptation practices on technical efficiency (TE) among smallholder farmers in Nepal. An adaptation index is used to explore the impact of farmers’ adaptation on TE using the stochastic frontier analysis framework. Data for six districts of Nepal representing all three agro-ecological regions (terai, hill, and mountain) were collected from a focus group discussion, a stakeholder workshop and a household survey. The survey shows that about 91% of the farming households have adopted at least one practice to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change. Empirical results reveal that adaptation is an important factor explaining efficiency differentials among farming households. Those adopting a greater number of adaptation practices on a larger scale are, on average, found to be 13% more technically efficient than those adopting fewer practices on smaller scale. The empirical results also show that average TE is only 0.72, indicating that there are opportunities for farming households in Nepal to further improve productive efficiency, on average by 28%. Other important factors that explain variations in the productive efficiency across farming households include farmer’s education level, irrigation facilities, market access, and social capital such as farmer’s participations in relevant agricultural organizations and clubs. This study provides empirical evidence to policy makers that small scale adjustments made by farmers in response to climate change impacts are effective in improving farmers’ efficiency in agriculture production. This indicates a need for farmers’ involvement in climate change adaptation planning.
Pub.: 14 Mar '18, Pinned: 16 Mar '18