A pinboard by
Eunice Ezembu

Lecturer II, Nnamdi azikeiwe University Awka


it determined the acute toxicity of the leave extract on mice and it's acute hypoglycemic effect.

The drugs used in management and control of diabetes milletus are associated with various side effects ,complications and high cost problems. These challenges lead to the search for alternative ways of managing and controlling diabetes traditionally. Thus, the use of herbs in treatment of diabetes milletus. Asystesia gangetica leaf extract was analyzed for its acute toxicity test and found out that at its upper level of intake mice proved safe while the hypoglycemic effect proved to be very effective in control and management of diabetes milletus. However, this herbal extract competed favourably when compared to standard diabetes milletus drug. Finally, the Asystesia gangetica leaf was proven to be safe and effective in the control and management of diabetes milletus.


Toxicological studies on aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea in rodents.

Abstract:  Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine of India. The plant is used in the treatment of snake-bites, fever, piles, and diabetes. However, there is little toxicological information available regarding its safety after exposure. The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea stem bark. In the acute toxicity test, Swiss albino mice were treated with aqueous extract (300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg), orally. Animals were observed periodically during the first 24 h after administration of the extract, and daily thereafter for 14 days. In the repeated dose toxicity study, the aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea (300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg per day) was administered orally for a period of 28 days in Wistar rats. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical biochemistry, as well as histology, were studied. Aqueous extract did not produce mortality, changes in behavior or any other physiological activities in mice, for any of the selected doses. There were no significant differences in the body weight, organ weights and feeding habits between control and treated animals. Hematological and biochemical analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in rodents.

Pub.: 27 Aug '10, Pinned: 18 Sep '17

Effects of Gmelina arborea extract on experimentally induced diabetes.

Abstract: To study the effects of aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea bark on normoglycemic levels and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats.After single administration of the aqueous extract, plasma glucose level was determined up to 6 h. In subacute study, the aqueous extract was administered for 28 d and plasma glucose level was determined weekly. The diabetes was induced in rats by the intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. The diabetic animals were divided into four groups containing six in each: Group I diabetic control, Group II and III treated with the aqueous extract respectively at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily and Group IV treated with glibenclamide at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg body weight once daily. In acute study, the aqueous extract and glibenclamide were administered orally to rats. Plasma glucose levels were determined at 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after the administration of the test samples. To study subacute effects, test samples (the aqueous extract and glibenclamide) were administered for 28 d consecutively. The effects of each test sample on plasma glucose level, body weight as well as food and water intake were also monitored weekly. The oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical indicators were estimated on day 28.The aqueous extract did not significantly decrease the plasma glucose level in the normoglycemic rats as shown by the acute and subacute assays. However, after oral administration of the aqueous extract, the plasma glucose level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased in the diabetic rats in the acute study. The long-term administration of the aqueous extract significantly (P<0.001) reduced plasma glucose levels of the diabetic rats. Additionally, the aqueous extract also reduced loss of body weight and significantly decreased food and water intake in the diabetic animals. Nevertheless, no effects on biochemical indicators were observed at the selected doses.The aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea bark had antihyperglycemic activity against STZ induced diabetes in rats, after single and subacute oral administration. Moreover, it did not show significant glucose lowering effect in normoglycemic rats.

Pub.: 26 Jun '13, Pinned: 18 Sep '17

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Abstract: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated.Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan.Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes.

Pub.: 01 May '10, Pinned: 18 Sep '17

Antidiabetic activity of Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Abstract: Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. (Poaceae) is traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus. The grains of Paspalum scrobiculatum are having potential in the development of drug for diabetes due to their antidiabetic activity.To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of grains of Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. (Poaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight), were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats. Alloxan monohydrate was used to induce diabetes mellitus. Total phenolic content was estimated in the extracts. The parameters studied included oral glucose tolerance test, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and glycated haemoglobin levels, liver glycogen content, serum lipid profile, and changes in body weights.In oral glucose tolerance test, reduction of fasting blood glucose levels took place from 60 min of extract administration. The extracts produced a dose-dependent fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 15 days of treatment with extracts the maximum reduction in FBG (35.14%) was observed in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic extract 500 mg/kg dose. A significant increase in serum insulin level was observed in the treated rats. Serum lipid levels were reversed towards near normal and a control in the loss of body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to diabetic control. The extract treatment also showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in glycated haemoglobin levels. The results demonstrate that Paspalum scrobiculatum possesses significant antidiabetic activity in diabetic rats.The results suggest that Paspalum scrobiculatum has antidiabetic activity, thereby justifying its traditional claim and augmenting it into the present day systems of medicine.

Pub.: 11 Nov '09, Pinned: 18 Sep '17