Student, Monash University Malaysia
Efficacy of whey protein supplement on essential amino acid levels during athletes’ recovery process
Athletes constantly experience a recovery process from sports performance and sports injuries. Often, athletes recovered from medical perspectives but the stamina required to participate in competitions may require additional time, depending on the severity of the injury, re-establishment of strength and physical perfection. They would then resort by consuming medications to mask the pain and boost the recovery process. Some of these medications are prohibited by World Anti-doping Agency due to the presence of some illegal substances. Consequently, consumption of whey protein (WP) supplement has become one of the most widely-used supplements for rapid recovery process by increased “building blocks” of protein level among athletes. Many studies have been conducted and examined individually upon the efficacy and safety of WP during athletes’ recovery process. However, there is lack of a concise clinical evidence to assess the overall efficacy and safety of WP during athletes’ recovery process. Therefore, the purpose of my research is to examine overall efficacy and safety of WP during athletes’ recovery process by summarising and analysing available literature in a systematical and statistical format.
Abstract: Tears of the latissimus dorsi (LD) and teres major (TM) are rare but disabling injuries in the overhead athlete.All patients who underwent an LD and/or TM repair between January 1, 2010, and June 6, 2016, with more than 12 months' follow-up were included. Demographic information and postoperative range of motion were recorded. Patients were contacted via phone and answered questions to provide the following: Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) shoulder and elbow outcome score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. Performance data for professional athletes were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively and compared by paired t tests.Eleven male patients aged 29.9 ± 12.4 years were included; 86% were right hand dominant, 86% underwent surgery on the dominant side, and 73% were pitchers (7 professional and 1 collegiate). The mean time from injury to repair was 389 ± 789 days; 36% of repairs were performed within 6 weeks of injury. At final follow-up, the VAS score was 0.7 ± 1.9, the ASES score was 100 ± 0, and the KJOC score was 93 ± 5. Professional (major and minor league) pitchers had a mean total time participating in professional baseball of 6.6 ± 3.9 years, with 3.9 ± 2.3 years before surgery and 2.7 ± 1.8 years after surgery. Among professional pitchers, the VAS pain score was 0.0 ± 0.0, the ASES score was 100 ± 0, and the KJOC score was 89 ± 2. All professional pitchers returned to the same level of play. No significant differences existed between any preoperative and postoperative performance metrics for pitchers (P > .05).Repair of LD and TM tears in both professional and recreational athletes produces reliable functional recovery with minimal pain and the ability to return to preoperative athletic activity, even among elite throwing athletes.
Pub.: 12 Jul '17, Pinned: 04 Oct '17
Abstract: A change in reaction time is one of various clinical measures of neurocognitive function that can be monitored after concussion and has been reported to be among the most sensitive indicators of cognitive impairment. To determine the timeline for clinically assessed simple reaction time to return to baseline after a concussion in high school athletes. Observational study. Athletic training room. Twenty-one high school-aged volunteers. Participants completed 8 trials of the ruler-drop test during each session. Along with baseline measures, a total of 6 additional test sessions were completed over the course of 4 weeks after a concussion (days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28). The mean reaction times calculated for all participants from each of the 7 test sessions were analyzed to assess the change in reaction time over the 7 time intervals. After a concussion and compared with baseline, simple reaction time was, on average, 26 milliseconds slower at 48 to 72 hours postinjury (P < .001), almost 18 milliseconds slower on day 7 (P < .001), and about 9 milliseconds slower on day 10 (P < .001). Simple reaction time did not return to baseline levels until day 14 postinjury. Clinically assessed simple reaction time appeared to return to baseline levels within a timeframe that mirrors other measures of cognitive performance (approximately 14 days).
Pub.: 20 Jul '17, Pinned: 04 Oct '17
Abstract: The purpose was to survey dietary habits (DH) and nutrient timing (NT) practices of baseball student-athletes (mean ± SD; 20.7 ± 1.4 yr.) from three NCAA Division I institutions, and examine the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) in regard to nutrition practices.Descriptive statistics and Pearson X(2) analyses were run. Responses on 10 DH and 5 NT items differed (p ≤ 0.10) between athletes who sought dietary planning from a SD (n = 36) versus those who consulted a strength and conditioning coach (SCC, n = 42).In regard to DH items, the SD group found it easier to eat before activity (92% vs. 71%, p = 0.03), did not consume fast food (31% vs. 14%, p = 0.02), caffeinated beverages (57% vs. 46%, p = 0.02), or soda (56% vs. 37%, p = 0.10), prepared their own meals more often (86% vs. 73%, p = 0.07), and took daily multi-vitamins (56% vs. 32%, p = 0.02). The SCC group ate more at burger locations (21% vs. 6%, p = 0.02). In regard to NT items, the SD group ate breakfast before training/lifting sessions (67% vs. 37%, p = 0.02), and had post-workout nutrition options provided (61% vs. 27%, p = 0.01). The SCC group reported pre-competition meals of fast food (58% vs. 45%, p = 0.01), and sport coaches who were less aware of healthy food options (39% vs. 65%, p = 0.05).The SD is as a valuable asset to an intercollegiate athletics program. In the current study, athletes from the SD group consumed less high calorie/low nutrient dense items, ate before exercise, and consumed healthier options post-exercise. The presence of a SD was linked to provision of healthier food options during team trips. The evidence-based eating strategies and dietary plan provided by a SD may lead to improved performance and recovery.
Pub.: 16 Aug '17, Pinned: 04 Oct '17
Abstract: Whey protein has been widely applied to athletes and the fitness field for muscle growth and performance improvement. Limited studies focused on the beneficial effects of whey on aerobic exercise according to biochemical assessments. In the current study, 12 elite male track runners were randomly assigned to whey and maltodextrin groups for 5 weeks' supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein on physiological adaptions and exercise performance. During this period, three time points (pre-, post-, and end-test) were used to evaluate related biochemical parameters, body composition, and performance. The post-test was set 1 day after a marathon for injury status evaluation and the end-test was also assessed after 1-week recovery from endurance test. The results showed that the whey group exhibited significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase indicators after the marathon (post-test), as well as at the end-test (p<0.016). The endurance performance in twelve-minute walk/run was also significantly elevated (p<0.012) possibly due to an increase in the muscle mass and amelioration of exercise injuries. In the current study, we demonstrated that whey protein can also be used for aerobic exercise for better physiological adaptation, in addition to resistance training. Whey protein could be also a potential nutrient supplement with a variety of benefits for amateur runners.
Pub.: 22 Aug '17, Pinned: 04 Oct '17
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