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CURATOR
A pinboard by
Rungaroon Suksamran

PhD student, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi

PINBOARD SUMMARY

We identify possible biomarker or target for crop plant improvement by using Bioinformatics approach

Cassava is an important crop plant of this century, since it has consumed for a million people and animal feeding. It is not only a plant of hope for a poor country, but also serve as a source of renewable energy for the development of civilization. According to the rapid growth of the world population, limited in cultivated area and global warming, these lead to unsuitable conditions for cultivation and greatly decreases of crop plant production including cassava. Humanity is going to confront in food and energy crisis soon.

Crop improvement such as plant breeding and genome editing with the prospect to increase crop yield and provide a cultivar tolerant to harsh environmental conditions, such as drought, flood and diseases, is also important to serve world population demand. However, to improve the plant varieties with above technologies like plant breeding is necessary to know the biomarker that is a critical indicator of the desired characteristics such as well growing, high yield and tolerated plant. While genome editing requires the specific target that is the key factor in controlling important processes of plant for precise and efficient improvement.

This work is interested in the identification of non-coding RNAs, biomolecules that are involved in diverse processes within plants such as flowering, root development, biotic and abiotic stress response including sexual reproduction. We applied Bioinformatics, computational approach to analyze cassava genetic sequences for ncRNA by screening specific features and provide a landscape of all possible non-coding RNA in cassava genome. We expected that the results of our work might be used as a model for studying important processes within plants, as well as the target for improving the crop by plant breeding or genome editing. We believe that our results will be part of a weapon to overcome starving in the poor countries and energy shortage for the survival of mankind.

38 ITEMS PINNED

Comparative RNA-seq based transcriptome profiling of waterlogging response in cucumber hypocotyls reveals novel insights into the de novo adventitious root primordia initiation.

Abstract: Waterlogging is a serious abiotic stress to plant growth because it results in the decline in the supplement of oxygen to submerged tissues. Although cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is sensitive to waterlogging, its ability to generate adventitious roots (ARs) facilitates gas diffusion and increases plant survival when the oxygen concentration is decreased. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that enable de novo AR primordia emergence upon waterlogging, the RNA sequencing-based transcriptomic responses of two contrasting cucumber genotypes, Zaoer-N (waterlogging tolerant) and Pepino (waterlogging sensitive), which differed in their abilities to form AR were compared.More than 27,000 transcripts were detected in cucumber hypocotyls, from which 1494 and 1766 genes in 'Zaoer-N' and 'Pepino', respectively, were differentially expressed 2 days after waterlogging. The significant positive correlation between RNA sequencing data and a qPCR analysis indicated that the identified genes were credible. A comparative analysis revealed that genes functioning in carbohydrate mobilization, nitrate assimilation, hormone production and signaling pathways, transcription factors and cell division might contribute to the waterlogging-triggered AR primordia initiation. Ethylene was determined to be an important plant hormone responsible for the cucumber ARs initiation. Additionally, genes encoding cytochrome P450, ankyrin repeat-containing proteins and sulfite oxidases were determined as important in waterlogging acclimation.This research broadens our understanding of the mechanism underlying waterlogging-triggered ARs emergence, and provides valuable information for the breeding of cucumber with enhanced waterlogging tolerance.

Pub.: 28 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

The use of metabolomic quantitative trait locus mapping and osmotic adjustment traits for the improvement of crop yields under environmental stresses.

Abstract: The sustainable production of food to feed an increasing world population is a major challenge for plant scientists, especially due to the unpredictable and dynamic nature of global climatic conditions. Heat waves, drought, increased soil salinity, unseasonal cold and flooding are all becoming more common climate-related causes of stress for crop plants, and are already affecting yields and the geographical distributions of optimal growing regions for many crops. Therefore, the development and application of multi-faceted strategies, including sustainable agricultural practices and the development and cultivation of intraspecific hybrids containing genetic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance from wild relatives, will either alone or together be essential to sustainably grow high-yielding crops under increasingly stressful environmental conditions. The development of abiotic stress-resilient crops requires an in-depth knowledge of plant development and of the biological processes that enable plants to survive in stressful environments, and this knowledge can be obtained from "omic" studies, such as bioinformatics, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The plant metabolome can provide a snapshot of the physiological and biochemical status of a plant cell under normal or stressful conditions, and thus it is closely related to the plant phenotypes. Analysis of the metabolomes of plants growing under stressful conditions can be used to identify stress resistance-associated metabolites, or biomarkers, which can then be used by plant breeders as selective markers to help identify the phenotypes, resulted from the complex interactions between genotype and environment, associated with stress-tolerant crop plants. Osmotic adjustment is an important metabolic adaptation mechanism which helps plants survive abiotic stress and can support higher crop yield under stressful environmental conditions. This review highlights the recent advances in our understanding of the functions of abiotic stress-responsive metabolites, with an emphasis on the use of metabolomic quantitative trait locus mapping and osmotic adjustment agronomic traits, for the improvement of crop yields under environmental stresses.

Pub.: 03 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

Discovery and Annotation of Plant Endogenous Target Mimicry Sequences from Public Transcriptome Libraries: A Case Study of Prunus persica.

Abstract: Novel transcript discovery through RNA sequencing has substantially improved our understanding of the transcriptome dynamics of biological systems. Endogenous target mimicry (eTM) transcripts, a novel class of regulatory molecules, bind to their target microRNAs (miRNAs) by base pairing and block their biological activity. The objective of this study was to provide a computational analysis framework for the prediction of putative eTM sequences in plants, and as an example, to discover previously un-annotated eTMs in Prunus persica (peach) transcriptome. Therefore, two public peach transcriptome libraries downloaded from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and a previously published set of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were investigated with multi-step analysis pipeline, and 44 putative eTMs were found. Additionally, an eTM-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network module associated with peach fruit organ development was built via integration of the miRNA target information and predicted eTM-miRNA interactions. My findings suggest that one of the most widely expressed miRNA families among diverse plant species, miR156, might be potentially sponged by seven putative eTMs. Besides, the study indicates eTMs potentially play roles in the regulation of development processes in peach fruit via targeting specific miRNAs. In conclusion, by following the step-by step instructions provided in this study, novel eTMs can be identified and annotated effectively in public plant transcriptome libraries.

Pub.: 05 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

The Interactions between the Long Non-coding RNA NERDL and Its Target Gene Affect Wood Formation in Populus tomentosa.

Abstract: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulatory factors for plant growth and development, but little is known about the allelic interactions of lncRNAs with mRNA in perennial plants. Here, we analyzed the interaction of the NERD (Needed for RDR2-independent DNA methylation) Populus tomentosa gene PtoNERD with its putative regulator, the lncRNA NERDL (NERD-related lncRNA), which partially overlaps with the promoter region of this gene. Expression analysis in eight tissues showed a positive correlation between NERDL and PtoNERD (r = 0.62), suggesting that the interaction of NERDL with its putative target might be involved in wood formation. We conducted association mapping in a natural population of P. tomentosa (435 unrelated individuals) to evaluate genetic variation and the interaction of the lncRNA NERDL with PtoNERD. Using additive and dominant models, we identified 30 SNPs (P < 0.01) associated with five tree growth and wood property traits. Each SNP explained 3.90-8.57% of phenotypic variance, suggesting that NERDL and its putative target play a common role in wood formation. Epistasis analysis uncovered nine SNP-SNP association pairs between NERDL and PtoNERD, with an information gain of -7.55 to 2.16%, reflecting the strong interactions between NERDL and its putative target. This analysis provides a powerful method for deciphering the genetic interactions of lncRNAs with mRNA and dissecting the complex genetic network of quantitative traits in trees.

Pub.: 05 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

Physiological, Biochemical, Epigenetic and Molecular Analyses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Tolerance.

Abstract: Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant's growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses. Physio-biochemical traits specifically membrane stability index, antioxidant potential, osmoprotectants and chlorophyll contents, measured at vegetative stage, were used for multivariate analysis to identify the most contrasting genotypes. Genetic and epigenetic analyses indicated the possible mechanisms associated with differential response of the wheat genotypes under salt stress. Better antioxidant potential, membrane stability, increased accumulation of osmolytes/phytophenolics, and higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio under 200 mM NaCl stress identified Kharchia-65 to be the most salt-tolerant cultivar. By contrast, increased MDA level, reduced soluble sugar, proline, total chlorophyll, total phenolics contents, and lower antioxidant potential in HD-2329 marked it to be sensitive to the stress. Genetic and bioinformatics analyses of HKT1;4 of contrasting genotypes (Kharchia-65 and HD-2329) revealed deletions, transitions, and transversions resulting into altered structure, loss of conserved motifs (Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly and Gly-Arg) and function in salt-sensitive (HD-2329) genotype. Expression analysis of HKTs rationalized the observed responses. Epigenetic variations in cytosine methylation explained tissue- and genotype-specific differential expression of HKT2;1 and HKT2;3.

Pub.: 18 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

Abstract: Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome.The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR.The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic information processing, plant-pathogen interactions, plant defense and stress response processes in potato.The findings suggested that the PVY-derived vsiRNAs could act as a pathogenicity determinant and as a counter-defense strategy to host RNA silencing in PVY-potato interactions. The broad range of host genes targeted by PVY vsiRNAs in infected potato suggests a diverse role for vsiRNAs that includes suppression of host stress responses and developmental processes. The interactome scenario is the first report on the interaction between one of the most important Potyvirus genome-derived siRNAs and the potato transcripts.

Pub.: 19 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

miR3954 is a trigger of phasiRNAs that affects flowering time in citrus.

Abstract: In plant, a few 22 nt miRNAs direct cleavages of their targets and trigger the biogenesis of phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs) in plant. In this study, we characterized a miRNA triggering phasiRNAs generation, miR3954, and explored its downstream target genes and potential function. Our results demonstrated that miR3954 showed specific expression in the flowers of citrus species and it targeted a NAC transcription factor (Cs7g22460) and two non-coding RNA transcripts (lncRNAs, Cs1g09600 and Cs1g09635). The production of phasiRNAs was detected from transcripts targeted by miR3954 and was further verified in both sequencing data and transient expression experiments. PhasiRNAs derived from the two lncRNAs targeted not only miR3954-targeted NAC gene but also additional NAC homologous genes. No homologous genes of these two lncRNAs was found in plants other than citrus species, implying that this miR3954-lncRNAs-phasiRNAs-NAC pathway is likely citrus-specific. Transgenic analysis indicated that the miR3954-overexpressing lines showed decreased transcripts of lncRNA, elevated abundance of phasiRNAs and reduced expression of NAC genes. Interestingly, the overexpression of miR3954 leads to early flowering in citrus plants. In summary, our results illustrated a model of the regulatory network of miR3954-lncRNA-phasiRNAs-NAC, which may be functionally involved in flowering in citrus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 28 Jul '17, Pinned: 11 Sep '17

Commercialization of new biotechnology: a systematic review of 16 commercial case studies in a novel manufacturing sector.

Abstract: The 1980s and 1990s saw a major expansion of biotechnology into new areas of science including genomics and recombinant technologies. This was coupled to the widespread emergence of academics into the commercial sector as they were encouraged to spin out companies or commercialize their intellectual property. There were many opportunities to raise investment, and extraordinary success stories were prominent across many areas of technology. The field of plant biotechnology for manufacturing recombinant pharmaceuticals (molecular pharming) emerged and was developed in this period. Like other biotechnologies, this was an exciting new development which offered some very obvious benefits and commercial advantages. In particularly, plant molecular pharming represented a highly novel and potentially disruptive manufacturing technology for recombinant proteins. Twenty-five years on, a series of interviews with senior members of sixteen of the most prominent companies involved in the field provides insight into the original drivers for commercialization, strategic thinking and planning behind key commercial decisions and an insider view into the major reasons for commercial success or failure. These observations and recurring themes identified across a number of commercial ventures remain relevant today, as new biotech companies continue to spin out of the world of academia.

Pub.: 04 Jul '15, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

Abstract: Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored glycans, the ability to scale up production rapidly for emergency responses and the ability to produce commodity recombinant proteins on an agricultural scale.

Pub.: 30 Apr '15, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Manufacturing economics of plant-made biologics: case studies in therapeutic and industrial enzymes.

Abstract: Production of recombinant biologics in plants has received considerable attention as an alternative platform to traditional microbial and animal cell culture. Industrially relevant features of plant systems include proper eukaryotic protein processing, inherent safety due to lack of adventitious agents, more facile scalability, faster production (transient systems), and potentially lower costs. Lower manufacturing cost has been widely claimed as an intuitive feature of the platform by the plant-made biologics community, even though cost information resides within a few private companies and studies accurately documenting such an advantage have been lacking. We present two technoeconomic case studies representing plant-made enzymes for diverse applications: human butyrylcholinesterase produced indoors for use as a medical countermeasure and cellulases produced in the field for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into ethanol as a fuel extender. Production economics were modeled based on results reported with the latest-generation expression technologies on Nicotiana host plants. We evaluated process unit operations and calculated bulk active and per-dose or per-unit costs using SuperPro Designer modeling software. Our analyses indicate that substantial cost advantages over alternative platforms can be achieved with plant systems, but these advantages are molecule/product-specific and depend on the relative cost-efficiencies of alternative sources of the same product.

Pub.: 01 Jul '14, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Improvement of drought tolerance by overexpressing MdATG18a is mediated by modified antioxidant system and activated autophagy in transgenic apple.

Abstract: Autophagy is a major and conserved pathway for delivering and recycling unwanted proteins or damaged organelles to be degraded in the vacuoles. AuTophGy-related (ATG) protein 18a has been established as one of the essential components for autophagy occurrence in Arabidopsis thaliana. We previously cloned the ATG18a homolog from Malus domestica (MdATG18a) and monitored its responsiveness to various abiotic stresses at the transcriptional level. However, it is still unclear what its function is under abiotic stress in apple. Here, we found that heterologous expression of MdATG18a in tomato plants markedly enhanced their tolerance to drought. Overexpression (OE) of that gene in apple plants improved their drought tolerance as well. Under drought conditions, the photosynthesis rate and antioxidant capacity were significantly elevated in OE lines when compared with the untransformed wild type (WT). Transcript levels of other important apple ATG genes were more strongly up-regulated in transgenic MdATG18a OE lines than in the WT. The percentage of insoluble protein in proportion to total protein was lower and less oxidized protein accumulated in the OE lines than in the WT under drought stress. This was probably due to more autophagosomes being formed in the former. These results demonstrate that overexpression of MdATG18a in apple plants enhances their tolerance to drought stress, probably because of greater autophagosome production and a higher frequency of autophagy. Those processes help degrade protein aggregation and limit the oxidation damage, thereby suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in the drought response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 14 Jul '17, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

A meta-analysis of quantitative trait loci for abiotic and biotic stress resistance in tetraploid cotton.

Abstract: The number and location of mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) depend on genetic populations and testing environments. The identification of consistent QTL across genetic backgrounds and environments is a pre-requisite to marker-assisted selection. This study analyzed a total of 661 abiotic and biotic stress resistance QTL based on our previous work and other publications using the meta-analysis software Biomercator. It identified chromosomal regions containing QTL clusters for different resistance traits and hotspots for a particular resistance trait in cotton from 98 QTL for drought tolerance under greenhouse (DT) and 150 QTL in field conditions (FDT), 80 QTL for salt tolerance in the greenhouse conditions (ST), 201 QTL for resistance to Verticillium wilt (VW, Verticillium dahliae), 47 QTL for resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum), and 85 QTL for resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloiodogyne incognita) and reniform nematodes (RN, Rotylenchulus reniformis). The traits used in QTL mapping for abiotic stress tolerance included morphological traits-plant height and fresh and dry shoot and root weights, physiological traits-chlorophyll content, osmotic potential, carbon isotope ratio, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, transpiration, canopy temperature, and leaf area index, agronomic traits-seedcotton yield, lint yield, boll weight, and lint percent, and fiber quality traits-fiber length, uniformity, strength, elongation, and micronaire. The results showed that resistance QTL are not uniformly distributed across the cotton genome; some chromosomes carried disproportionally more QTL, QTL clusters, or hotspots. Twenty-three QTL clusters were found on 15 chromosomes (c3, c4, c5, c6, c7, c11, c14, c15, c16, c19, c20, c23, c24, c25, and c26). Moreover, 28 QTL hotshots were associated with different resistance traits including one hotspot on c4 for Verticillium wilt resistance, two QTL hotspots on c24 for chlorophyll content measured under both drought and salt stress conditions, and three other hotspots on c19 for the resistance to Verticillium wilt and Fusarium wilt, and micronaire under drought stress conditions. This meta-analysis of stress tolerance QTL provides an important foundation for cotton breeding and further studies on the genetic mechanisms of abiotic and biotic stress resistance in cotton.

Pub.: 26 Jun '17, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Profiling of drought-responsive microRNA and mRNA in tomato using high-throughput sequencing.

Abstract: Abiotic stresses cause severe loss of crop production. Among them, drought is one of the most frequent environmental stresses, which limits crop growth, development and productivity. Plant drought tolerance is fine-tuned by a complex gene regulatory network. Understanding the molecular regulation of this polygenic trait is crucial for the eventual success to improve plant yield and quality. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs play critical roles in plant drought tolerance. However, little is known about the microRNA in drought response of the model plant tomato. Here, we described the profiling of drought-responsive microRNA and mRNA in tomato using high-throughput next-generation sequencing.Drought stress was applied on the seedlings of M82, a drought-sensitive cultivated tomato genotype, and IL9-1, a drought-tolerant introgression line derived from the stress-resistant wild species Solanum pennellii LA0716 and M82. Under drought, IL9-1 performed superior than M82 regarding survival rate, H2O2 elimination and leaf turgor maintenance. A total of four small RNA and eight mRNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology. 105 conserved and 179 novel microRNAs were identified, among them, 54 and 98 were differentially expressed upon drought stress, respectively. The majority of the differentially-expressed conserved microRNAs was up-regulated in IL9-1 whereas down-regulated in M82. Under drought stress, 2714 and 1161 genes were found to be differentially expressed in M82 and IL9-1, respectively, and many of their homologues are involved in plant stress, such as genes encoding transcription factor and protein kinase. Various pathways involved in abiotic stress were revealed by Gene Ontology and pathway analysis. The mRNA sequencing results indicated that most of the target genes were regulated by their corresponding microRNAs, which suggested that microRNAs may play essential roles in the drought tolerance of tomato.In this study, numerous microRNAs and mRNAs involved in the drought response of tomato were identified using high-throughput sequencing, which will provide new insights into the complex regulatory network of plant adaption to drought stress. This work will also help to exploit new players functioning in plant drought-stress tolerance.

Pub.: 28 Jun '17, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Multilevel regulation and signalling processes associated with adaptation to terminal drought in wild emmer wheat.

Abstract: Low water availability is the major environmental factor limiting crop productivity. Transcriptome analysis was used to study terminal drought response in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, genotypes contrasting in their productivity and yield stability under drought stress. A total of 5,892 differentially regulated transcripts were identified between drought and well-watered control and/or between drought resistant (R) and drought susceptible (S) genotypes. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that multilevel regulatory and signalling processes were significantly enriched among the drought-induced transcripts, in particular in the R genotype. Therefore, further analyses were focused on selected 221 uniquely expressed or highly abundant transcripts in the R genotype, as potential candidates for drought resistance genes. Annotation of the 221 genes revealed that 26% of them are involved in multilevel regulation, including: transcriptional regulation, RNA binding, kinase activity and calcium and abscisic acid signalling implicated in stomatal closure. Differential expression patterns were also identified in genes known to be involved in drought adaptation pathways, such as: cell wall adjustment, cuticular wax deposition, lignification, osmoregulation, redox homeostasis, dehydration protection and drought-induced senescence. These results demonstrate the potential of wild emmer wheat as a source for candidate genes for improving drought resistance.

Pub.: 25 Mar '10, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Comparative transcriptome analysis of the different tissues between the cultivated and wild tomato.

Abstract: Although domesticated tomato is cultivated by wild tomato, there are a lot of differences between cultivated tomato and wild tomato, such as shape, physiological function and life history. Many studies show that wild tomato has better salt resistance and drought resistance. In addition to, domesticated tomato's fruit is bigger and has more nutritious than wild tomato. The different features are closely related to differentially expressed genes. We identified 126 up-regulated differentially expressed genes and 87 down-regulated differentially expressed genes in cultivated tomato and wild tomato by RNA-Seq. These differentially expressed genes may be associated with salt resistance, drought resistance and fruit nutrition. These differentially expressed genes also further highlight the large-scale reconstruction between wild and cultivated species. In this paper, we mainly study GO enrichment analysis and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes. After GO and pathway enrichment analysis, a set of significantly enriched GO annotations and pathways were identified for the differentially expressed genes. What's more, we also identified long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs in the two species and analyzed its essential features. In addition to, we construct a co-expression network of long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs, and annotate mRNAs associated with long non-coding RNAs as target genes, and speculate the regulation function of long non-coding RNAs. In total, our results reveal the effects of artificial and natural selection on tomato's transcript, providing scientific basis for tomato's research in the future.

Pub.: 10 Mar '17, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Opportunities for improving leaf water use efficiency under climate change conditions.

Abstract: WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) is a complex (multi)-trait, that depends on several physiological processes, driving plant productivity and its relation with a changing environment. Climatic change predictions estimate increases in temperature and drought in the semi-arid regions, rendering improved water use efficiency is a mandatory objective to maintain the current global food supply. The aims of this review were (i) to identify through a meta-analysis the leaf traits mostly related to intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi, the ratio between A - net photosynthesis and gs - stomatal conductance), based on a newly compiled dataset covering more than 200 species/varieties and 106 genus of C3 plants (ii) to describe the main potential targets for WUEi improvement via biotechnological manipulations and (iii) to introduce emergent and innovative technologies including UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) to scale up levels from leaf to whole plant water status. We confirmed that increases in gm/gs and Vcmax/gs ratios are systematically related with increases in WUEi maintained across species, habitats, and environmental conditions. Other emergent opportunities to improve WUEi are described such as the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration and their link with metabolomics. Finally, we outline our hypothesis that we are observing the advent of a "smart" agriculture, wherein new technologies, such as UAVs equipped with remote sensors will rapidly facilitate an efficient water use regulating the irrigation schedule and determination, under field conditions, of cultivars with improved water use efficiency. We, therefore, conclude that the multi-disciplinary challenge toward WUE has only just begun.

Pub.: 13 Aug '14, Pinned: 03 Sep '17

Non-coding RNAs as regulators in epigenetics (Review).

Abstract: Epigenetics is a discipline that studies heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve altering the DNA sequence. Over the past decade, researchers have shown that epigenetic regulation plays a momentous role in cell growth, differentiation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The main epigenetic mechanisms include the well-understood phenomenon of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and regulation by non-coding RNAs, a mode of regulation that has only been identified relatively recently and is an area of intensive ongoing investigation. It is generally known that the majority of human transcripts are not translated but a large number of them nonetheless serve vital functions. Non-coding RNAs are a cluster of RNAs that do not encode functional proteins and were originally considered to merely regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, taken together, a wide variety of recent studies have suggested that miRNAs, piRNAs, endogenous siRNAs, and long non-coding RNAs are the most common regulatory RNAs, and, significantly, there is a growing body of evidence that regulatory non-coding RNAs play an important role in epigenetic control. Therefore, these non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) highlight the prominent role of RNA in the regulation of gene expression. Herein, we summarize recent research developments with the purpose of coming to a better understanding of non-coding RNAs and their mechanisms of action in cells, thus gaining a preliminary understanding that non-coding RNAs feed back into an epigenetic regulatory network.

Pub.: 15 Nov '16, Pinned: 03 Sep '17